Coronavirus: Wear masks in crowded public spaces, says science body


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The UK lags behind in setting clear policies on face coverings and on using them, the Royal Society says

Everyone should carry a face covering when they leave home in order to tackle coronavirus, the president of the UK’s national academy of science has said.

Prof Sir Venki Ramakrishnan, president of the Royal Society, said the coverings should then be worn “whenever you are in crowded public spaces”.

He added there was evidence that they protected both the wearer and those around them.

The UK was “way behind” many countries in their usage, he said.

Current guidance on face coverings varies across the UK, but Public Health England previously said they did not need to be worn outdoors.

There are mixed feelings among the experts on the government’s scientific advisory group, SAGE, around the use of face coverings.

Some point to evidence that indicates coverings do not seem to slow the spread of flu when worn in Asian countries, and there are concerns they might give some a false sense of security.

But there is a consensus that they may reduce the risk of an infected person passing the virus on to someone else.

Speaking as the Royal Society published two reports on face coverings, Prof Ramakrishnan said the public remained “sceptical” about their benefits because “the message has not been clear enough” and guidelines have been inconsistent.

In late April, only about 25% of people in the UK wore face coverings, compared to 83.4% in Italy, 65.8% in the United States and 63.8% in Spain, according to one of the reports, which examined the factors limiting the take-up.

Not wearing a face covering should be regarded as “anti-social” in the same way as drink driving or failing to wear a seatbelt, Prof Ramakrishnan said.

“Not doing so increases the risk for everyone, from NHS workers to your grandmother,” he said.

Prof Paul Edelstein from the University of Pennsylvania, who wrote the other report which examined the effectiveness of masks and other coverings, said the evidence that they protected other people was “clearer all the time”, but there was also “some evidence” they protected the wearer.

“There are people without symptoms going about their daily business who are unknowingly breathing out droplets that are carrying the virus,” he said.

“If they had their faces covered the majority of those droplets would be caught before they can infect other people. Wearing face coverings can help save lives and prevent disabling illnesses.”



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Push to ban strip searches in custody for children, replace with body scanning


Tasmanian mother Sarah knows exactly the kind of trauma that can be caused to children who are strip searched in custody.

Her teenage son has been searched numerous times.

“It causes shocking anxiety for him and for me. It’s horrible,” she said.

Sarah, who can’t be identified for legal reasons, said she and her son had made complaints.

“Even though, yes, they may have done the wrong thing to be going there [reception prison], he’s still a child, he’s still my child.”

She said in one instance, an apology had been issued to her son from the Director of Prisons, after a review of one search at the Hobart Reception Prison found procedures were “not fully complied with” and may have caused him “distress and confusion”.

The Commissioner for Children and Young People in Tasmania, Leanne McLean, described strip searching of children as “extremely undignified”.

“If you put yourself in the shoes of a child in that position, it would be an awful process,” Ms McLean said.

Children’s commissioner Leanne McLean says strip searching children can’t be justified.(Supplied)

Last year, Ms McLean called for the routine strip-searching of children in custody to end.

“As a routine practice, it can’t be justified. That is the advice I gave the Government. And the Government have accepted that advice,” she said.

She said following operational changes, including the introduction of a risk assessment process, the number of children strip searched at both the Hobart and Launceston Reception Prisons had reduced significantly.

Where, previously, almost all young people were strip-searched, between July 1, 2019, and the end of February 2020, that had dropped to about 35 per cent, or about 70 children.

Those children were subjected to either a “full personal search”, in which the child removes half their clothes at a time, and is required to bend at the waist and part their buttocks, or a “modified personal search”, in which the buttocks inspection is not required.

“I remain concerned at the numbers of children continuing to be strip searched, and will continue to monitor the effect of the changes in practice and policy and the effect of the proposed legislative reforms,” Ms McLean said.

Aboriginal children over-represented in searches

Despite making up 4.6 per cent of the Tasmanian population, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people made up 21 per cent of the 199 young people strip searched.

Michael Mansell, from the Aboriginal Land Council, said police were still using discretion in who they searched.

“We need to change the law and the Parliament needs to legislate to prevent police and custodial officers from strip searching children, and unless that legislation is in place nothing’s going to change,” Mr Mansell said.

Tasmanian Aboriginal lawyer Michael Mansell in office.
Tasmanian Aboriginal lawyer Michael Mansell wants the law changed to ban strip searching children.(ABC News: Damian McIntyre)

“The Parliament needs to take that discretion away, and make a statement saying this is forbidden.”

Of the nine recommendations Ms McLean made regarding the strip-searching of children in custody last year, the Government has accepted six, and three “in-principle”.

In a statement, the Attorney-General Elise Archer said the Government would consult on draft legislation later this year to address the recommendations.

“We remain committed to implementing any measures that will ensure the dignity and self-respect of children and young people in the custodial process.”

Rodney Dillon is the Aboriginal advisor to Amnesty International, and said technology like that used in airport screening should be replacing strip searches.

 Aboriginal elder and former Tasmanian ATSIC Commissioner Rodney Dillon
Rodney Dillon believes scanning technology will minimise trauma for children.(ABC News: Sam Ikin)

“This is only about money and we should invest in the appropriate machines so we can have this done with the least amount of privacy invaded.”

A spokeswoman said the Department of Justice was considering electronic security as part of a broader upgrade of technology, and would continue to explore technologies that might offer an appropriate and effective alternative to personal searches.

Tasmania, along with other states and territories, is looking at whether the age of criminal responsibility should be raised.

Both Mr Dillon and Ms McLean would like it raised from 10 to 14.

But Ms McLean said that could only happen once Tasmania had a supportive and therapeutic youth justice system.



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Former Manchester United star Luis Nani shows off ripped physique in incredible body transformation


Former Manchester United star Luis Nani has shown off his ripped physique in an incredible body transformation, aged 33.

The Orlando City star has clearly been hitting the weights during lockdown, with the MLS season not set to return until July 8th.

But ahead of the condensed mini-tournament, Nani enjoyed a relaxing day off in Orlando, showing off his ridiculous six-pack.

The Portuguese star — who has also played for Sporting Lisbon, Valencia and Lazio during his career — left fans’ jaws on the floor on Monday evening.

Nani posted a picture of himself standing on a rock wearing just a pair of shorts.

As well as his rock-hard abs, the formerly slender Manchester United winger — who spent eight years at Old Trafford — flexed his arms to reveal his bulging biceps.

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Nani shared the snap on Instagram, captioned: “Day off vibes #MLSisBack #OrlandoCity #dayoff #relax”.

And supporters couldn’t get over the remarkable transformation.

Singer Nelson Freitas replied: “Give me some of those abs man.”

Former Portugal teammate Yannick Djalo said: “Pooowwww! The man with the most muscle since he was a kid and with the most ABS in the world.”

Another follower even joked: “Stomach looking photoshopped but it ain’t smh.”

Nani has just over a week to keep working on his new body before the MLS season returns at Disney World — conveniently for him, in Orlando.

The 2020 campaign is set to return with a 54-game tournament having got through just two rounds of fixtures before lockdown was enforced.

And now Disney World has been deemed the best location to keep players safe, despite it already being agreed the NBA would finish their season at the Florida resort.

All 26 teams from both the Eastern and Western Conference will descend on Orlando for the shortened competition.

This article originally appeared in The Sun and was reproduced with permission



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Push to ban strip searches for children, replace with body scanning


Tasmanian mother Sarah knows exactly the kind of trauma that can be caused to children who are strip searched in custody.

Her teenage son has been searched numerous times.

“It causes shocking anxiety for him and for me. It’s horrible,” she said.

Sarah, who can’t be identified for legal reasons, said she and her son had made complaints.

“Even though, yes, they may have done the wrong thing to be going there [reception prison], he’s still a child, he’s still my child.”

She said in one instance, an apology had been issued to her son from the Director of Prisons, after a review of one search at the Hobart Reception Prison found procedures were “not fully complied with” and may have caused him “distress and confusion”.

The Commissioner for Children and Young People in Tasmania, Leanne McLean, described strip searching of children as “extremely undignified”.

“If you put yourself in the shoes of a child in that position, it would be an awful process,” Ms McLean said.

Children’s commissioner Leanne McLean says strip searching children can’t be justified.(Supplied)

Last year, Ms McLean called for the routine strip-searching of children in custody to end.

“As a routine practice, it can’t be justified. That is the advice I gave the Government. And the Government have accepted that advice,” she said.

She said following operational changes, including the introduction of a risk assessment process, the number of children strip searched at both the Hobart and Launceston Reception Prisons had reduced significantly.

Where, previously, almost all young people were strip-searched, between July 1, 2019, and the end of February 2020, that had dropped to about 35 per cent, or about 70 children.

Those children were subjected to either a “full personal search”, in which the child removes half their clothes at a time, and is required to bend at the waist and part their buttocks, or a “modified personal search”, in which the buttocks inspection is not required.

“I remain concerned at the numbers of children continuing to be strip searched, and will continue to monitor the effect of the changes in practice and policy and the effect of the proposed legislative reforms,” Ms McLean said.

Aboriginal children over-represented in searches

Despite making up 4.6 per cent of the Tasmanian population, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people made up 21 per cent of the 199 young people strip searched.

Michael Mansell, from the Aboriginal Land Council, said police were still using discretion in who they searched.

“We need to change the law and the Parliament needs to legislate to prevent police and custodial officers from strip searching children, and unless that legislation is in place nothing’s going to change,” Mr Mansell said.

Tasmanian Aboriginal lawyer Michael Mansell in office.
Tasmanian Aboriginal lawyer Michael Mansell wants the law changed to ban strip searching children.(ABC News: Damian McIntyre)

“The Parliament needs to take that discretion away, and make a statement saying this is forbidden.”

Of the nine recommendations Ms McLean made regarding the strip-searching of children in custody last year, the Government has accepted six, and three “in-principle”.

In a statement, the Attorney-General Elise Archer said the Government would consult on draft legislation later this year to address the recommendations.

“We remain committed to implementing any measures that will ensure the dignity and self-respect of children and young people in the custodial process.”

Rodney Dillon is the Aboriginal advisor to Amnesty International, and said technology like that used in airport screening should be replacing strip searches.

 Aboriginal elder and former Tasmanian ATSIC Commissioner Rodney Dillon
Rodney Dillon believes scanning technology will minimise trauma for children.(ABC News: Sam Ikin)

“This is only about money and we should invest in the appropriate machines so we can have this done with the least amount of privacy invaded.”

A spokeswoman said the Department of Justice was considering electronic security as part of a broader upgrade of technology, and would continue to explore technologies that might offer an appropriate and effective alternative to personal searches.

Tasmania, along with other states and territories, is looking at whether the age of criminal responsibility should be raised.

Both Mr Dillon and Ms McLean would like it raised from 10 to 14.

But Ms McLean said that could only happen once Tasmania had a supportive and therapeutic youth justice system.



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Kylie Jenner moans about her ‘quarantine pounds’ as she shows off ridiculously toned body


Kylie Jenner has baffled fans by moaning about the “quarantine pounds” she has to lose while showing off her ridiculously toned body in a bikini.

The reality TV star, 22, took to Instagram to complain about all the weight she has put on during lockdown.

She shared a video of herself modelling a bikini in front of a mirror and wrote: “Ok cutting off these quarantine pounds starting tomorrow.”

However, the post left fans baffled as Kylie looked to slimand toned in the video.

Kylie Jenner shared a video in which she moaned about her quarantine pounds

One shared her comments on Twitter, adding wide-eyed emojis in shock.

Kylie has previously admitted she’s been treating herself during lockdown by feasting on sugary and carb-heavy foods.

She’s shared pictures of naughty breakfasts including waffles drenched with syrup and dusted with sugar.

She has vowed to go on a diet

Fans were baffled as Kylie appears to look slim and toned

The make-up mogul has also been indulging in cake, pizza and ice cream over the last few months.

However, despite her indulgences, Kylie looks like she’s managed to stay trim.

Her lockdown treats are in stark contrast to her sister Kourtney, who seems to have maintained her strict diet over the last few months.

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Kourtney been sharing regular updates on her food intake, telling fans she’s been snacking on vegan cheese and sourdough bread with butter and honey.

While she also showed her kids tucking into watermelon and mango sprinkled with special chilli powder, and celery with almond butter.

Kylie  has been staying at home at her multi-million dollar mansion in California with her daughter Stormi, on/off boyfriend Travis Scott and best friend Stassie Karanikolaou.

Despite lockdown in California, she has managed to enjoy several nights out during lockdown, and was recently pictured hitting the town with her pal Fai Khadra.

The pair enjoyed a meal at Nobu in Malibu before heading to LA hotspot Bootsy Bellows, which is said to have opened just for Kylie’s group.

She was also pictured attending Stassie’s birthday party at her home recently along with a group of friends.





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Kim Lu World Leading Fashion And Glamour Model Reveals Her Secret To Chiseled Sculpted Body


Kim Lu is today world leading fashion and glamour model. Her home town is Cornwall, Ontario, Canada. She is of Vietnamese ethnicity. Apart from being a model she is also a nurse. She has been Miss January 2019 for Playboy Croatia and also featured in FHM.

Women Fitness President Ms. Namita Nayyar had a candid interview with Kim Lu, one of the leading Playboy glamour models to talk about her workout, diet, hair & skin care, beauty secrets and success story.

Namita Nayyar:

A healthy morning ritual that you follow?

Kim Lu:

I’m a creature of habit so I wake up, do my daily morning routine get my face on :)…take my vitamins have my breakfast then go workout and start the day.

Namita Nayyar:

What motivated you to take up modelling as a career?

Kim Lu:

I actually am a nurse and modelling has always been a hobby but became more of a career and serious the past few years. Modelling has always been my passion. I enjoy being in front of the camera, travelling and meeting new people all over the world. I’m very fortunate to continue to do what I love.

kim-lu
Namita Nayyar:

You are a model, mommy and nurse, which role does you think defines you the best?

Kim Lu:

They are all rewarding in its own way. I can’t say just one since all define who i am as a person. As a model I get to express myself in so many ways. It brings out that creative side in me. As a mother the nurturing side, being able to take care of someone that is your own. Teaching and growing with them. It’s the best feeling in the world. As a nurse I feel accomplished helping others who are vulnerable and in need.

Full Interview is Continued on Next Page

This interview is exclusive and taken by Namita Nayyar President womenfitness.net and should not be reproduced, copied or hosted in part or full anywhere without an express permission.

All Written Content Copyright © 2020 Women Fitness



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Hal Johnson says popular ‘Body Break’ series was created to battle racism


Television personality Hal Johnson, who co-hosted the Canadian health and fitness segment “Body Break,” said the long-running series was started to combat racism.

In a four-minute YouTube video, Johnson said he was hired by TSN to be a sports reporter in 1988.

Later that day, he said he received another call from the same person saying that he wouldn’t get the job after all because network executives said TSN already had a Black reporter and didn’t want to have two.

TSN, a division of Bell Media, issued an apology via a statement Tuesday afternoon.

“We apologize to Hal Johnson for the racism he experienced at TSN beginning in 1988, a shameful part of our past, and thank him for sharing his story as a reminder of the impact of racism in Canadian media that continues today. We recognize that even 30 years later, there is still much work to do to improve our commitment to on-air and editorial diversity.

“As a first step, TSN is part of Bell Media’s recently announced Content Diversity Task Force, which as part of its mandate is committed to amplifying voices from BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, people of colour) on-air talent.”

In the video, Johnson also described a commercial shoot at a Toronto racetrack in 1988, where he was joined by two white actors to rehearse a cheering scene. He said that before they shot the scene, a director asked the white woman to sit beside the white man instead of Johnson.

Johnson asked the assistant director about the switch afterwards and was told the client didn’t want the white woman to be seen sitting beside a Black man.

Johnson wondered to himself how he could change things, and after meeting Joanne McLeod, Body Break was born.

Johnson said he was met with resistance when shopping Body Break around to Canadian companies though. He was told the Canadian public wasn’t ready for a Black and white couple.

The two pitched Body Break to Participaction, a federal government program for healthy living, and went on to create 65 Body Break episodes, which were a television fixture for a generation of Canadians.

Johnson and McLeod also appeared on “The Amazing Race Canada” in 2013.

This report by The Canadian Press was first published June 16, 2020.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=undefined





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Kane Cornes body shames Taylor Walker


AFL great Kane Cornes took another shot in his long-running feud with Adelaide star Taylor Walker, once again questioning the Crows forward’s conditioning after his side’s abysmal loss to Port Adelaide on Saturday night.

The footy world united in its criticism of the Crows after they were thrashed by 75 points in the local derby. The 17.8 (110) to 5.5 (35) win was Port’s biggest ever in a Showdown, while Adelaide’s total was its lowest ever against its cross-city rival.

In April, a photo emerged of Cornes’ brother and fellow Power legend Chad looking ripped next to Port forward Charlie Dixon, who was showing off his six pack.

The next month, a photo of a shirtless Walker started doing the rounds and Cornes took a cheeky crack at the obvious difference between his and Dixon’s physiques.

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The outspoken media personality went back to the well on the Sunday Footy Show, pinpointing a moment in the fourth quarter of last night’s game where Dixon out-muscled Walker in a contest to win the ball and kick a goal.

While Cornes’ Channel 9 colleagues thought he was having a laugh by ripping into Walker’s rig again, the 300-gamer maintained he was deadly serious in his criticism.

“You lot laughed at me and almost mocked me when I showed this split-screen of Taylor Walker and Charlie Dixon up against each other,” Cornes said.

“That was a bit of fun but this is why I raise this. Let’s take a look at this contest between these two people, and one’s done their weights and one hasn’t.

“One player has eaten well, he’s done his weights and prepared himself. The other one has sat on the couch and that’s the result.

“That is not tongue in cheek. That is a great example of strength in a contest and he’s been absolutely rag-dolled and you can see why.”

RELATED: Adelaide slammed for ‘disgusting’ loss

RELATED: Walker responds to Cornes’ attack

Cornes also took a crack at Walker on Twitter while watching Dixon get the better of him on Saturday night.

In May, Cornes said “you can’t let those sorts of standards slip through” in regards to Walker’s conditioning, prompting the 30-year-old to hit back.

“To be honest mate, I find it quite sad and I pity the bloke that he’s just trying to stay relevant this whole time,” Walker told Triple M.

“Honestly, it’s getting a bit of a joke that he continually has a personal pot shot at me.

“I’ve let it go, but he continues to try and stay relevant.

“So if that’s what he wants to he can do that.”

Cornes and Walker have locked horns on multiple occasions. In response to a post about the Port icon threatening to “out” an AFL player who was sending him disparaging text messages while on air, Walker responded by telling him to “grow up and stop sooking”.

Some of Walker’s friends called Cornes on New Year’s Eve to mock him for his short career as a firefighter, while the pair also shared an angry exchange on the Sunday Footy Show in 2017 when Walker blasted “players that come out of the game and don’t have a positive spin on the game because we all love the game of footy”.



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Body Image & Eating Disorders Affect Men Too



While often thought of as a problem affecting women, it is estimated that around one-quarter of people suffering from anorexia and bulimia are males, and almost equal numbers of males and females suffer from binge eating disorder. Body dissatisfaction in men is also increasing and now close to that of females, although men tend to aspire to a lean, muscular physique rather than a low body weight.

Risk factors for an eating disorder include perfectionism, bullying, dieting, trauma and childhood obesity. Male athletes are more at risk, particularly those in sports and activities that focus on weight and aesthetics, such as weight lifters, wrestlers, body builders, gymnasts, dancers and jockeys.

There are many warning signs of an eating disorder, which are similar in men and women, but those which are more common in males are listed in the box on the right.

The good news is that recovery from an eating disorder is possible, but the sooner someone gets help, the shorter the recovery period. Unfortunately, men often take longer to be diagnosed and seek help due to the stigma around eating disorders being a ‘female problem’ and a lack of services designed to specifically meet their needs.

WHAT TO LOOK OUT FOR…

  • A preoccupation with body building
  • Continuing to do weight training when injured
  • Feeling anxious or stressed about missing workouts
  • Muscular weakness
  • Using anabolic steroids
  • Lowered testosterone
  • A reduced interest in, or fears around sex

So if you have an eating disorder (or suspect that someone you know does), it’s important to seek help immediately. Start with seeing your GP, who can help you to determine the support you need and refer you to practitioners with specialised skills in managing eating disorders.

For more information call the National Eating Disorder Collaboration (NEDC) helpline on 1800 334 673 for free, confidential support or visit their website.



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NIMH » Brain Cells Can Harbor and Spread HIV Virus to the Body


NIH-funded study highlights the importance of addressing the brain in HIV cure strategies

Researchers have found that astrocytes, a type of brain cell, can harbor HIV and then spread the virus to immune cells that traffic out of the brain and into other organs. HIV moved from the brain via this route even when the virus was suppressed by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a standard treatment for HIV. The study, conducted by researchers at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago and published in PLOS Pathogens, was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

“This study demonstrates the critical role of the brain as a reservoir of HIV that is capable of re-infecting the peripheral organs with the virus,” said Jeymohan Joseph, Ph.D., chief of the HIV Neuropathogenesis, Genetics, and Therapeutics Branch at NIH’s National Institute of Mental Health, which co-funded the study. “The findings suggest that in order to eradicate HIV from the body, cure strategies must address the role of the central nervous system.”

HIV attacks the immune system by infecting CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, a type of white blood cell that is vital to fighting off infection. Without treatment, HIV can destroy CD4+ T cells, reducing the body’s ability to mount an immune response—eventually resulting in AIDS.

cART, which effectively suppresses HIV infections, has helped many people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. But some studies have shown that many patients receiving antiretroviral drugs also show signs of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, such as thinking and memory problems. Researchers know that HIV enters the brain within eight days of infection, but less is known about whether HIV-infected brain cells can release virus that can migrate from the brain back into the body to infect other tissues.

The brain contains billions of astrocytes, which perform a variety of tasks—from supporting communication between brain cells to maintaining the blood-brain barrier. To understand whether HIV can move from the brain to peripheral organs, Lena Al-Harthi, Ph.D., and her research team at Rush University Medical Center transplanted HIV-infected or noninfected human astrocytes into the brains of immunodeficient mice.

The researchers found that the transplanted HIV-infected astrocytes were able to spread the virus to CD4+ T cells in the brain. These CD4+ T cells then migrated out of the brain and into the rest of the body, spreading the infection to peripheral organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes. They also found that HIV egress from the brain occurred, albeit at lower levels, when animals were given cART. When cART treatment was interrupted, HIV DNA/RNA became detectable in the spleen—indicating a rebound of the viral infection.

“Our study demonstrates that HIV in the brain is not trapped in the brain—it can and does move back into peripheral organs through leukocyte trafficking,” said Dr. Al-Harthi. “It also sheds light on the role of astrocytes in supporting HIV replication in the brain—even under cART therapy.”

This information has significant implications for HIV cure strategies, as such strategies need to be able to effectively target and eliminate reservoirs of HIV replication and reinfection, Dr. Al-Harthi added. 

“HIV remains a major global public health concern, affecting 30 to 40 million people across the globe. To help patients, we need to fully understand how HIV affects the brain and other tissue-based reservoirs,” said May Wong, Ph.D., program director for the NeuroAIDS and Infectious Diseases in the Neuroenvironment at the NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, which co-funded the study. “Though additional studies that replicate these findings are needed, this study brings us another step closer towards that understanding.”

Image showing HIV infection of CD4+ T cells in the mouse brain. Human T cells (magenta), human astrocytes (red), HIV (green), nuclei (Blue). Arrows identify uptake of HIV from astrocytes into T cells. Credit: Al-Harthi et al. (2020)

Reference

Lutgen, V., Narasipura, S. D., Barbian, H. J., Richards, M., Wallace, J., Razmpour, R., … & Al-Harthi, L. (2020). HIV infects astrocytes in vivo and egresses from the brain to the periphery. PLOS Pathogens

Grants

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About the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH): The mission of the NIMH is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the way for prevention, recovery and cure. For more information, visit the NIMH website.

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is the nation’s leading funder of research on the brain and nervous system. The mission of NINDS is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit the NIH website.

NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®



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