U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ginsburg dies at age 87 from pancreatic cancer

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, a stalwart liberal on the U.S. Supreme Court since 1993, died on Friday at age 87, the court said.

Her passing gives President Donald Trump a chance to expand its conservative majority with a third appointment at a time of deep divisions in America with a presidential election looming.

Ginsburg, a champion of women’s rights who became an icon for American liberals, died at her home in Washington of complications from metastatic pancreatic cancer, the court said in a statement. She was surrounded by her family, the court said.

Her departure could dramatically alter the ideological balance of the court, which currently has a 5-4 conservative majority, by moving it further to the right.

“Our Nation has lost a jurist of historic stature,” Chief Justice John Roberts said in a statement. “We at the Supreme Court have lost a cherished colleague. Today we mourn, but with confidence that future generations will remember Ruth Bader Ginsburg as we knew her – a tireless and resolute champion of justice.”

Trump, seeking re-election on Nov. 3, already has appointed two conservatives to lifetime posts on the court, Neil Gorsuch in 2017 and Brett Kavanaugh in 2018. Supreme Court appointments require Senate confirmation, and Trump’s fellow Republicans control the chamber.

A private interment service will be held at Arlington National Cemetery, the court said, but did not specify a date.

– Reuters

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Bob Gore: Inventor of Gore-tex breathable waterproof fabric dies | US News

The inventor of breathable but waterproof fabric Gore-tex has died at the age of 83.

in 1969, Bob Gore developed a new polymer that had billions of tiny holes that let vapour escape from underneath a garment but did not let water penetrate.

The fabric revolutionised the outdoor and rain wear industry, earning a fortune for the family after he patented the invention and licenced its use to manufacturers around the world.

The product and similar materials developed by the company have been used in space suits, guitar strings and medical devices.

Bob Gore pictured in 2005. Pic: Wikicommons

Today, its annual sales are more than £3bn and the family is among the richest in the US.

The company, W L Gore and Associates, was founded by Bob Gore’s father from the family home in 1958.

Bob Gore went to work for his father after getting his PhD in chemical engineering.

The company was already using polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) – the same material as Telfon, invented by Dupont – but Bob Gore was researching new types of industrial tape when he found out that PTFE could be stretched, so it became porous.

He tried a number of different versions of the stretched material until finding one that made a microporous structure, which was 70% air but had ‘holes’ that were smaller than water droplets at room temperature. It became called expanded or ePTFE.

It led to its use in raincoats that are waterproof but breathable, and the product is now widely used in shoes and other clothing.

Bob Gore succeeded his father as the company’s president and CEO in 1976, remaining president for almost 25 years and company chairman for 30 years.

A picture showing the structure of ePTFE. Pic: Wikicommons
A picture showing the structure of ePTFE. Pic: Wikicommons

Current CEO Jason Field said: “Bob Gore appreciated that innovation can arise from many different places if entrepreneurial spirit is encouraged and fostered.

“Innovation as activity, doing things with your hands, experimenting, testing and observing, was instilled in our enterprise consistently and productively throughout Bob’s tenure as both president and chairman.”

In 2006, Bob Gore was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame

He died on Thursday at a family home in Maryland following a prolonged illness.

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Inventor of waterproof fabric Robert Gore dies aged 83

Robert Gore won awards for his contributions to science

Robert W Gore, who invented Gore-Tex technology while working for his father’s company in Maryland, US, has died aged 83.

Introduced in 1976, the fabric has protected countless walkers, runners and outdoor enthusiasts from wet weather, but is also found in numerous products.

A chemical engineer, Robert Gore became CEO of WL Gore & Associates.

He died on Thursday after a long illness, the company confirmed.

Gore was born in Utah and received bachelor’s and advanced degrees from the University of Delaware and the University of Minnesota.

He joined WL Gore & Associates, which had been founded in 1958 by his father, his uncle Bill and Vieve Gore.

In a company lab in 1969 he discovered a new form of polymer, a substance made of large molecules that repeat to form long chains.

His father asked him to research a new way to manufacturer plumber’s tape. Robert Gore discovered that by yanking a material called PTFE, the polymer stretched by 1,000% to create a microporous structure.

Robert Gore discovered that PTFE could be expanded through rapid stretching
Robert Gore discovered that PTFE could be expanded through rapid stretching

This material created a fabric with billions of pores smaller than water droplets, forming a waterproof but breathable surface – or Gore-Tex.

“It was truly a pivot point in this company’s history,” Greg Hannon, WL Gore & Associates’ chief technology officer, told Delaware Online newspaper last year..

Among its varied applications, Gore-Tex is used in medical devices including heart patches, guitar strings, space suits, and vacuum bags.

WL Gore & Associates became a billion-dollar company in 1996 during Gore’s presidency. “We plan to leave a legacy to society and to future generations” including “infants with surgically reconstructed hearts that live because of our medical products,” Gore said on the occasion.

In 2000 he stepped down as president of WL Gore & Associates. During his career he received several awards for his contributions to science including from the Society of Plastics Engineers.

Gore is survived by his wife as well as children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

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NSW coronavirus death toll rises to 55, as man in his 70s dies of the disease

A man in his early 70s has died of coronavirus, Premier Gladys Berejiklian says, bringing the NSW death toll to 55.

His case was traced back to one of the Sydney CBD clusters.

He died yesterday at Sydney’s Royal North Shore hospital.

A total of 55 people have now died of coronavirus in NSW.

Ms Berejiklian confirmed two new cases of coronavirus on Sunday, one in hotel quarantine.

The other was a Sydney taxi driver who tested positive for coronavirus after working eight days while infectious and visiting several venues in Sydney and on the South Coast.

NSW Health said the confirmed coronavirus case drove in western and south-west Sydney on September 8-10 and 14-18.

People who rode in taxis in Moorebank, Bankstown, Chipping Norton, Liverpool, Lidcombe, Warwick Farm and Milperra may have been affected.

NSW Health confirmed they were working with 13CABS to contact passengers who were at risk of infection.

The confirmed COVID-19 case drove a taxi for over a week while infectious.(Supplied: NSW Government)

Health authorities said anyone who visited a list of six venues including restaurants, golf clubs and service clubs in Sydney’s west, south-west and on the South Coast, were also at risk.

People are considered a close contact of the taxi driver, and must seek testing and immediately isolate, if they spent more than an hour at:

  • Campbelltown Golf Club, Glen Alpine on September 16 from 2:00pm-4:30pm
  • Milton Ulladulla Ex Servos Club on 12 September 12 from 2:00pm-6:15pm
  • Carlo’s Italian Restaurante Bar & Seafood, Ulladulla on September 12 from 8:00pm-9:30pm
  • Bannisters Pavilion Rooftop Bar & Grill, Mollymook on September 13, 12:30pm-2:15pm
  • Mama Wok, MacArthur Square Campbelltown on September 9, from 1:30pm-2:30pm

“They must stay isolated for the entire period, even if a negative test result is received,” NSW Health’s Jeremy McAnulty said.

Anyone who visited the venues for less than an hour is considered a casual contact, which means they need to monitor for symptoms including a fever, dry cough or tiredness.

In addition to the above, people should monitor for symptoms if they visited:

  • Picnic Point Bowling Club on September 18 from 3:00pm-6:00pm
  • Campbelltown Golf Club on September 16 from 9:30am-2:00pm
  • Wray St Oyster Shed Batemans Bay on September 12 from 12:00pm-1:00pm

NSW Health said early investigations into the source of infection indicate the taxi driver may have caught the virus at Liverpool Hospital.

It’s the second time this weekend that a case has been linked to hospitals in Sydney.

On Saturday, health authorities confirmed just one coronavirus case from local transmission, a staff member who worked at Concord Hospital while infectious.

“The case cared for patients with COVID-19 and further investigation is underway to identify how the infection was acquired,” NSW Health said yesterday.

About 13,500 coronavirus swabs were completed yesterday, and Ms Berejiklian acknowledged testing rates dipped on the weekend.

“But it’s still a state of high alert for us in NSW,” she said.

Ms Berejiklian also announced NSW workers would be eligible for paid pandemic leave to the value of $1,500 if they were forced to take time off work for self-isolation.

“If you’re someone who has a job and you don’t have any leave left, you will be paid $1,500 for that fortnight you have to isolate,” Ms Berejiklian said.

Unions NSW said the decision was “welcome, if overdue”.

“No worker should ever have to choose between their health and their livelihood, a point we first made to the Premier months ago,” Union NSW’s Mark Morey said.

Restaurant with open buffet fined

Meanwhile a Korean BBQ restaurant in Strathfield has become the latest venue to be slugged with a $5,000 fine after inspectors found an open buffet where diners were sharing crockery, cutlery and food.

Inspectors visited Butchers Buffet on September 11 and found the restaurant was not spaced to allow a four-square-metre distance between tables.

They noted that there was no COVID-19 marshal on site, and no limit to the amount of patrons noted on the door.

Diners stood shoulder to shoulder while serving themselves at the buffet, sharing utensils.

people lining up blurred at a buffet
Butchers Buffet in Strathfield was one of 23 venues fined for COVID-19 breaches.(Supplied)

SafeWork NSW Director Work Health and Safety Metro, Sarina Wise, said she thought COVID-19 breaches “defied logic”.

“Self-serve buffets and pandemics simply don’t mix, creating a source of potentially contaminated items,” Ms Wise said.

“No self-serve, buffet-style food service areas are allowed including communal bar snacks and communal condiments.

“Sharing items on a buffet is clearly a direct line for COVID transmission.”

Inspectors from Liquor & Gaming NSW, SafeWork NSW and NSW Fair Trading this week dished out 23 new fines for restaurants breaking the rules.

Among them, Albion Hotel in Parramatta, Ashfield Bowling Club in Ashfield, Cafe on Monash in Gladesville, Commercial Hotel in Kingsgrove, Collector Hotel in Parramatta, Crown Hotel in Parramatta, Erciyes Turkish Restaurant in Redfern General Bourke in Parramatta, Glasgow Arms Hotel in Ultimo, Indian Leaf in Redfern, La Famiglia Ristorante & Pizzeria in Jindabyne, Lotus Barangaroo in Barangaroo, Maya Da Dhaba in Redfern, Mohr Fish in St Ives, Rosehill Hotel in Rosehill, Oscars Sports Hotel in Bankstown, Rosehill Hotel in Rosehill, Royal Hotel in Darlington, Ship Inn in Sydney, Southern Cross Hotel in St Peters, St Jude Café in Redfern, Thredbo Alpine Hotel and Zushi Restaurant in Barangaroo.

To date, hospitality businesses have been dealt 150 fines totalling $658,000.

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Bob Gore, who invented Gore-Tex fabric, dies at 83 – National

NEWARK, Del. — Robert W. Gore, whose invention of what created the breathable-yet-waterproof fabric known as Gore-Tex revolutionized outdoor wear and helped spawn uses in numerous other fields, has died. He was 83.

Gore, who was president of W. L. Gore & Associates for almost 25 years and company chairman for 30 years, died on Thursday following a prolonged illness at his home in Delaware, company spokesperson Amy Calhoun confirmed Saturday.

Gore discovered a new form of a polymer in 1969 at a company lab in Newark, Delaware. His father, who began the company, asked Bob Gore to research a new way to manufacturer plumber’s tape at a low cost using PTFE, commonly known as DuPont’s Teflon, The News Journal of Wilmington reported.

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The son figured out that by stretching PTFE with a sudden yank, the polymer expanded by 1,000 per cent. The resulting product, known as ePTFE, created a microporous structure. The introduction of Gore-Tex technology came seven years later.

“It was truly a pivot point in this company’s history,” Greg Hannon, W.L. Gore & Associates’ chief technology officer, said last year. “Without which we would be much less significant of an organization than we are today.”

The membrane within Gore-Tex fabric has billions of pores that are smaller than water droplets, leading to waterproof but breathable raincoats, shoes and other clothing. The patents ultimately led to countless other uses with medical devices, guitar strings and in space travel, the company said.

Read more:
Inventor who created modern email with the ‘@’ sign dies

Gore was born in Utah, the oldest of five children to Bill and Vieve Gore, who both founded the company in 1958. Bill Gore had previously joined DuPont’s workforce and ultimately came to Delaware.

Bob Gore earned his bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Delaware and advanced degrees from the University of Minnesota. He succeeded his father as the company’s president and CEO in 1976. Gore and his family contributed funds for buildings and engineering laboratories at the University of Delaware.

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Gore is survived by his wife, Jane, as well as children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Memorial plans weren’t immediately announced by the company.

© 2020 The Canadian Press

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Man dies and suspected attacker flees the scene after stabbing in Melbourne’s South Yarra

A man has died and his suspected attacker has fled the scene after a stabbing in Melbourne’s inner south-east overnight.

Police said it was believed two men were involved in a fight at the intersection of Essex Street and Malvern Road in South Yarra at about 11:00pm on Friday.

A man, believed to be in his 40s, was found with suspected stab wounds to his upper body.

He was taken to hospital, where he later died.

“The other man fled the scene,” a Victoria Police spokesman said.

Homicide Squad detectives are investigating the circumstances surrounding the death and the altercation.

A housing complex on Malvern Road was blocked off as police attended the scene. Crime scene tape extended for blocks surrounding the intersection.

Sections of Malvern Road remained closed to traffic into Saturday morning.

Anyone who witnessed the incident or has dashcam footage of the area on Friday night is urged to contact Crime Stoppers.

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Bill Waterhouse: Iconic horse racing bookmaker dies aged 97

Family patriarch Bill Waterhouse, once the biggest bookmaker in the world, has died at the age of 97.

The father of high profile bookmaker Robbie Waterhouse and father-in-law of leading trainer Gai, Waterhouse’s death was confirmed by his son via Twitter on Friday.

“Very sad that we have lost my father, Bill Waterhouse,” Robbie Waterhouse said. “He left us peacefully with his family by his side. He was in great spirits till the end.

“He enjoyed a great day with all his great-grandchildren last Sunday.” Born William Stanley Waterhouse, the qualified barrister was a colourful racing figure who carved his name as a bookmaker, particularly during the 1960s and 70s.

Bookie Bill Waterhouse pictured at Randwick Racecourse before retirement.Source: News Limited

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US Supreme Court judge and women’s rights champion Ruth Bader Ginsburg dies | US News

US Supreme Court judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg has died at 87 due to complications from pancreatic cancer.

Justice Ginsburg died at her home in Washington DC surrounded by her family.

She was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Bill Clinton in 1993 and was a champion of women’s rights who became an icon for American liberals.

Justice Ginsburg had sat on the Supreme Court since 1993

Young women particularly seemed to embrace the judge, affectionately referring to her as the Notorious RBG.

Hailing from a working-class family in Brooklyn, Justice Ginsburg won major gender discrimination cases before she was appointed to the Supreme Court.

She was only the second woman in history to sit on the highest court in the country, providing key votes in landmark rulings securing equal rights for women, expanding gay rights and safeguarding abortion rights.

Joe Biden reacts to news of death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Ruth Bader Ginsburg ‘stood for all of us’ – Biden

Justice Ginsburg once said that despite graduating at the top of her Columbia University law school class, she struggled to find a law firm willing to hire her because she had “three strikes against her” – for being Jewish, female and a mother.

The 87-year-old announced in July that she was undergoing chemotherapy for lesions on her liver, after suffering five bouts of cancer beginning in 1999.

Responding to her death, US President Donald Trump said she was an “amazing woman” and he was sad to hear she had died.

Former US president George Bush described her as a “smart and humourous trailblazer”, saying he was “fortunate” to have known her.

Portrait of Ruth Ginsburg in 1977
She was only the second woman to be appointed a member of the Supreme Court
Crowds gather outside the Supreme Court to pay tribute
Crowds gather outside the Supreme Court to pay tribute

Hillary Clinton said she had “paved the way for so many women, including me”.

“There will never be another like her,” she added.

Chief Justice John G Roberts Jr was also among the first to pay tribute, saying: “Our nation has lost a jurist of historic stature.

“We at the Supreme Court have lost a cherished colleague.

“Today we mourn, but with confidence that future generations will remember Ruth Bader Ginsburg as we knew her – a tireless and resolute champion of justice.”

Nodding to her popularity across political lines, Donald Trump’s son Eric wrote on Twitter: “Justice Ginsburg was a remarkable woman with an astonishing work ethic. She was a warrior with true conviction and she has my absolute respect! #RIP.”

She was a household name in the US and numerous celebrities have paid tribute, including Hollywood actress Brie Larson, who said: “Thank you, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. We’ll keep pushing our way into all the places we’ve yet to be invited.”

A man kneels at a vigil for Justice Ginsburg
A man kneels at a vigil for Justice Ginsburg
People light candles in front of the US Supreme Court
People light candles in front of the US Supreme Court

Writer and actress Mindy Kaling wrote: “Ruth Bader Ginsburg was the kind of scholar and patriot you get excited about explaining to your kids.

“The kind of person who you say ‘who knows, one day you could be HER’. I hope you rest well, RBG, you must have been tired from changing the world.”

Justice Ginsburg’s death just over six weeks before the US election will have profound consequences and is likely to set off a heated battle over who should choose her replacement in the conservative-majority court.

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg greets US President Barack Obama prior to delivering his first State of the Union address
Justice Ginsburg greets then-US president Barack Obama prior to delivering his first State of the Union address

President Donald Trump will likely try to push a successor through the Republican-controlled Senate, moving the court further to the right.

Mr Trump is likely to put forth a nominee in the coming days, according to ABC News, and Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell has said the Senate will vote on the president’s pick.

But Democrats argue the seat should remain vacant until the outcome of the election is known.

Presidential hopeful Joe Biden, who described Justice Ginsburg as an “American hero”, pointed to the Republican Senate’s decision in 2016 not to appoint a successor to Justice Antonin Scalia until that year’s election.

“Just so there is no doubt, let me be clear: the voters should pick a president, and that president should select a successor to Justice Ginsburg,” he said.

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In a statement dictated to her daughter days before her death, Justice Ginsburg said her “most fervent wish” was not to be replaced until a new president is installed, according to non-profit media organisation NPR.

She was married to prominent tax lawyer Martin Ginsburg, who died in 2010, and is survived by two children, Jane and James.

A private funeral ceremony will be held at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.

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Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg dies at 87

Ruth Bader Ginsburg was born Joan Ruth Bader on March 15, 1933, in Brooklyn, daughter of Nathan and Celia Amster Bader. Her kindergarten class was loaded with Joans, so she became just Ruth.

It was her mother who encouraged her to read by taking her to a public library in Brooklyn above a Chinese restaurant. “Ever since, Ruth has associated the aroma of Chinese food with the pleasure of reading,” wrote Elinor & Robert Slater in “Great Jewish Women.”

Growing up during the Holocaust, she came to identify with her fellow Jews who were persecuted by Nazi Germany. Decades later, in the anthology “I am Jewish: Personal Reflections Inspired by the Last Words of Daniel Pearl,” she would write: “I am a judge, born, raised, and proud of being a Jew. The demand for justice runs through the entirety of Jewish history and Jewish tradition.”

Her mother died of cancer two days before she graduated from James Madison High School.

“Watching the physical deterioration of the parent who represented nurture and security, along with her father’s silent grief, had been anguishing for the sensitive adolescent,“ wrote biographer Jane Sherron de Hart. “Yet with Celia’s encouragement, she won prestigious college scholarships, played in the school orchestra, and cheered on the football team as a baton twirler — never once revealing to her schoolmates the illness that shadowed the Bader household in Flatbush.“

Despite her horrible loss, Ruth went on to attend Cornell University, where she excelled — and also met and married Martin Ginsburg.

From Cornell they went to Fort Sill in Oklahoma, where he served in the Army and she gave birth to a girl, Jane. The family moved on together to Harvard Law School, where she would become one of nine women in her class — and would find herself facing discrimination for her gender.

“Ginsburg attended a dinner in honor of women students that was a major turning point for her,” wrote the Slaters in 1998. “She was aghast at the words of the dean, who was host, as he asked each woman to explain what she was doing at the law school occupying a seat that could have been filled by a man.”

Ginsburg ended up literally occupying a seat that was supposed to be occupied by a man: Her husband was diagnosed with testicular cancer, and she attended his law classes as well as hers as he recuperated. (Martin recovered and had his own notable legal career. He died in 2010 at the age of 78.)

When her husband accepted a job in New York City, she transferred to Columbia Law School to finish her education. Although she was a top-flight student, New York firms were not interested in her. “The traditional law firms were just beginning to turn around on hiring Jews. But to be a woman, a Jew, and a mother to boot — that combination was a bit too much,” Ginsburg later wrote. Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter also declined to hire her, saying he was not ready to employ a female law clerk.

She eventually joined the faculty of Rutgers (N.J.) Law School and came to be a prominent advocate for gender equality, then became the first woman to become a full professor at Columbia. Ginsburg also gave birth to a second child, a son named James, in 1965.

In the 1970s, she participated in a series of gender discrimination cases before the U.S. Supreme Court in connection with the American Civil Liberties Union and its newly created Women’s Rights Project.

At issue was that the nation’s top court had never treated laws or government policies that discriminated against women as necessarily violating a fundamental right. It didn’t help that some of the laws in question were written by male lawmakers to make it seem as if they were benefiting women, by keeping them from having to deal with difficult situations that were — in the thinking of those male lawmakers — best left to men.

“Race discrimination,” Ginsburg said at her confirmation hearing in 1993, “was immediately perceived as evil, odious and intolerable. But the response that I got from the judges before whom I argued when I talked about sex discrimination was: ‘What are you talking about? Women are treated ever so much better than men.’”

Reed v. Reed (1971), for instance, dealt with an Idaho law that gave preference to a dad over a mom in administering their late son’s estate. In 1972, she successfully advocated for Susan Struck (Struck v. Secretary of Defense), who had been told she needed to terminate her pregnancy if she wanted to stay in the Air Force, clearly an issue a man would never face.

Within the all-male Supreme Court, Ginsburg found an advocate for her viewpoint in Justice William Brennan, who had been the cornerstone of the liberal Warren Court and who was still able to sometimes build a majority on the more-conservative Burger Court. Of the six gender-discrimination cases Ginsburg argued in the 1970s, she won five.

“To challenge those laws,” according to “Justice Brennan: Liberal Champion“ by Seth Stern and Stephen Vermeil, “she purposely sought out cases ‘with a strong human appeal,‘ aware that justices would not naturally relate to a woman’s experience.”

In 1980, President Jimmy Carter picked her for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. Thirteen years later, with the retirement of Justice Byron White, Clinton had the opportunity to appoint a Supreme Court justice for the first time and selected Ginsburg.

“Throughout her life,” Clinton said in announcing Ginsburg’s nomination, “she has repeatedly stood for the individual, the person less well-off, the outsider in society, and has given those people greater hope by telling them they have a place in our legal system.”

She was confirmed by a vote of 96-3. “By any measure,” said then-Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole (R-Kan.), “she is qualified to become the Supreme Court’s ninth justice.”

“Ginsburg is known as a ruthless editor with a keen eye for detail,” wrote Edith Lampson Roberts soon afterward in “The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995.” “Her soft voice and reserved manner hide great perceptiveness and a warm interest in people.”

Though tagged as a liberal, Ginsburg was an advocate for judicial restraint, arguing against attempting to legislate through judicial fiat. At times, she was critical of the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision not because she disapproved of legal abortion but because she thought the court had overreached.

“Ginsburg is professional, polite and extraordinarily precise in her opinions and questions,” wrote Laurence Tribe and Joshua Matz in their book “Uncertain Justice: The Roberts Court and the Constitution.” “She cares deeply about the role of the Court and frequently speaks about the need to find a balance between advancing constitutional values and respecting the Democratic process.”

She wrote a landmark opinion in the 1996 VMI case, which allowed women to enroll at the military academy, the nation’s last all-male public university. “It may be,” Ginsburg wrote for the court, “that many women would not want to go to VMI, but many men would not, either. And as long as there are qualified women who want to go — and there are — they must be admitted.”

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the 2012 case in which a divided court upheld most but not all of the Affordable Care Act, saw another of her most consequential opinions — part concurrence, part dissent. “Congress had a rational basis for concluding that the uninsured, as a class, substantially affect interstate commerce,” she wrote.

In 2000, she was one of four dissenting justices in the emergency case of Bush v. Gore, which decided the presidential election. “The Court’s conclusion that a constitutionally adequate recount is impractical is a prophecy the Court’s own judgment will not allow to be tested. Such an untested prophecy should not decide the Presidency of the United States,” she wrote. “I dissent.”

Another notable dissent came in Gonzales v. Carhart, a 2007 case in which the court upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Act of 2003. “Legal challenges to undue restrictions on abortion procedures do not seek to vindicate some generalized notion of privacy; rather, they center on a woman’s autonomy to determine her life’s course, and thus to enjoy equal citizenship stature,” she wrote. In 2013‘s Shelby County v. Holder, she blasted the majority’s decision to gut elements of the Voting Rights Act: “The Court’s opinion can hardly be described as an exemplar of restrained and moderate decision-making. Quite the opposite. Hubris is a fit word for today’s demolition of the VRA.“

Over the years, she developed a close friendship with Scalia, a bond they maintained despite significant ideological differences.

“Ruth and I disagree on the law all the time,” Scalia said at a joint forum in 2014. “But that has never had anything to do with our friendship.”

Scalia and Ginsburg both loved opera. In 1994, the two joined together to appear as extras in a Washington Opera production of a Richard Strauss opera. She also joined Justices Anthony Kennedy and Stephen Breyer on stage in 2003 in “Die Fledermaus.”

In 2013, she lectured on the subject of “Law in Opera” at the Chautauqua Institution in western New York. That was the same year a musician named Derrick Wang set Scalia-Ginsburg arguments to music in an opera called “Scalia/Ginsburg.”

“They liked to fight things out in good spirit — in fair spirit — not the way we see debates these days,” NPR’s Nina Totenberg observed as the time of Scalia’s death in 2016.

The court’s official statement announcing Ginsburg’s death declared that she “died this evening surrounded by her family at her home in Washington, D.C., due to complications of metastatic pancreas cancer.”

Ginsburg is to be buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the statement said.

“Our Nation has lost a jurist of historic stature. We at the Supreme Court have lost a cherished colleague. Today we mourn, but with confidence that future generations will remember Ruth Bader Ginsburg as we knew her – a tireless and resolute champion of justice,” Roberts wrote.

Ginsburg struggled with bouts of cancer for more than two decades. In 1999, she was diagnosed with colon cancer, but recovered after surgery and radiation therapy. A decade later, an annual exam turned up early-stage pancreatic cancer, prompting another round of surgery.

In 2018, Ginsburg was struck by lung cancer, which a court statement said was discovered by chance while she was being treated for a fall in which she broke two ribs. Surgery followed to remove two nodules but no further treatment was planned, the court said.

While Ginsburg prided herself on not missing any court arguments during her earlier bouts of illness, she missed two weeks of oral arguments in January 2019 as she recovered from the lung cancer surgery.

In August 2019, the court announced that Ginsburg’s pancreatic cancer had recurred and that she underwent a non-surgical, radiation treatment to shrink the tumors. She later claimed to be cancer free.

While Ginsburg drew kudos for her tenacity and became a testament to the success of modern medicine in managing cancer, she was often sluggish to disclose bad news she’d received from her doctors, perhaps out of fears of alarming her legions of supporters.

In February of this year, Ginsburg was notified that a scan had found lesions on her liver, marking her fifth known occurrence of cancer. The diagnosis prompted a biopsy and then immunotherapy. When that was unsuccessful, she began chemotherapy in May.

However, she offered no public indication that her cancer had returned until July, after two intervening hospitalizations for other illnesses that were announced by the court but portrayed as minor.

Although Ginsburg was not always prompt in announcing her health setbacks, court observers noted that other justices are more reserved or entirely silent about their medical conditions. Five of the eight remaining justices are 65 or older and it is common for justices to remain on the bench into their 80s.

Ginsburg was last seen by the public in late August via a photo posted on Twitter of her officiating at a wedding of a couple described as family friends of the justice.

“There is nothing like a cancer bout to make one relish the joys of being alive,” she said in 2001, after her first brush with the disease. “It is as though a special, zestful spice seasons my work and days. Each thing I do comes with a heightened appreciation that I am able to do it.”

Though slight in appearance — and despite her long-running battles with cancer — Ginsburg was a physical dynamo, known for her ambitious workouts. “People who think she is hanging on this world by a thread underestimate her,” wrote Carmon and Knizhnik in their 2015 book. “RBG’s main concession to hitting her late seventies was to give up water skiing.”

Ginsburg’s fitness regime became legendary, with videos of her workouts circulating widely. In 2017, a POLITICO reporter described his efforts to match her routine in an article headlined, “I Did Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s Workout. It Nearly Broke Me.”

Her energy carried her well beyond Washington, as she found herself in considerable demand as a speaker.

“Soaking in her late-in-life emergence as a liberal icon,” the Associated Press wrote in January 2018, “she’s using the court’s month-long break to embark on a speaking tour that is taking her from the Sundance Film Festival in Utah to law schools and synagogues on the East Coast.”

Her honors sometimes took forms unusual for a jurist. In 2016, it was announced a new species of praying mantis from Madagascar had been named for her. Scientists from the the Cleveland Museum of Natural History said they had named the species Ilomantis ginsburgae because of “her relentless fight for gender equality.”

Justices had been the subject of occasional cinematic biographies dating at least back to Oliver Wendell Holmes and 1950‘s “The Magnificent Yankee.” But in 2018, Ginsburg was the subject of two: “RBG,” a documentary, and “On the Basis of Sex,” in which she was portrayed by Felicity Jones. At the time of the release of the latter, POLITICO’s Peter Canellos said it was only the tip of the iceberg in terms of Ginsburg adulation, noting fans could also choose “from four biographies, five children’s books, a coloring book, a workout book, an action figure, an ‘historic Ruth Bader Ginsburg notebook,‘ a throw pillow and a robe-bedecked figurine.”

Ginsburg was the court’s oldest sitting justice and the second-longest-serving member of the court’s current bench.

Justice Clarence Thomas, who was nominated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, is the most senior justice. With Ginsburg’s passing, the oldest current member of the court is 82-year-old Justice Stephen Breyer, a Clinton appointee.

The last president to install more than two justices on the court was President Ronald Reagan, who filled three vacancies, as Obama could have had Merrick Garland been confirmed.

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US Supreme Court judge and liberal icon dies aged 87

Mr Clinton, who nominated her to the court, said: “America has lost one of the most extraordinary justices ever to serve on the Supreme Court. She was a magnificent judge and a wonderful person – a brilliant lawyer with a caring heart, common sense, fierce devotion to fairness and equality, and boundless courage in the face of her own adversity.

“Her 27 years on the Court exceeded even my highest expectations when I appointed her.”

Elizabeth Warren, the senator and former Democrat candidate for president in the 2020 election, said: “Ruthie was my friend and I will miss her terribly.”

Beyond Washington, Tim Cook, Apple’s chief executive, said: “Ruth Bader Ginsburg spent her life in pursuit of an equal world. She fought for the unheard, and through her decisions, she changed the course of American history.”

“We can never repay what she has given us, but we all can honor her legacy by working toward true equality, together.”

Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, tweeted that he was “inspired by her life and legacy”.

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