More deaths in England and Scotland may be due to obesity and excess body fat than smoking

Credit: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain

Obesity and excess body fat may have contributed to more deaths in England and Scotland than smoking since 2014, according to research published in the open access journal BMC Public Health.

Between 2003 and 2017 the percentage of deaths attributable to smoking are calculated to have decreased from 23.1% to 19.4% while deaths attributable to obesity and excess body fat are calculated to have increased from 17.9% to 23.1%. The authors estimate that deaths attributable to obesity and excess body fat overtook those attributable to smoking in 2014.

Jill Pell, at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom, the corresponding author said: “For several decades smoking has been a major target of public health interventions as it is a leading cause of avoidable deaths. As a result, the prevalence of smoking has fallen in the United Kingdom. At the same time the prevalence of obesity has increased. Our research indicates that, since 2014, obesity and excess body fat may have contributed to more deaths in England and Scotland than smoking.”

To examine changes in the prevalence of smoking, obesity and excess body fat in adults, the authors analysed data collected between 2003 and 2017 as part of the Health Surveys for England, and Scottish Health Surveys, on 192,239 adults across England and Scotland, who were 50 years old on average. Participants reported whether they had ever regularly smoked and their height and weight were measured by trained interviewers or nurses. The researchers combined their data with estimates of the risk of dying from smoking (17 studies) or obesity and excess body fat (198 studies), to calculate the number of deaths that could be attributed to smoking and obesity and excess body fat.

The authors found that while obesity and excess body fat likely accounted for more deaths than smoking since 2006 among older adults, smoking is still likely to contribute to more deaths than obesity and excess body fat among younger adults. The authors suggest that among those aged 65 and over and 45-64, respectively, obesity and excess body fat contributed to 3.5% and 3.4% more estimated deaths than smoking in 2017, while smoking accounted for 2.4% more estimated deaths than obesity and excess body fat among those aged 16-44.

The analysis also suggests that gender influenced the contributions of smoking, obesity and excess body fat to estimated deaths. Obesity and excess body fat may have accounted for 5.2% more deaths in 2017 than smoking in men, compared to 2.2% more deaths in women. Estimated deaths due to obesity and excess body fat are thought to have increased by 25.9% for women and 31% for men between 2003 and 2017, while deaths to due smoking are thought to have decreased by 18.1% for women and 14.9% for men.

Jill Pell said: “The increase in estimated deaths due to obesity and excess body fat is likely to be due to their contributions to cancer and cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggest that the public health and policy interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of smoking have been successful and that national strategies to address obesity and excess body fat, particularly focusing on middle-aged and older age groups and men, should be a public health priority.”

The authors caution that the number of deaths attributed to smoking, obesity and excess body fat in this study are estimates only and that factors influencing these deaths require further investigation. Future research could investigate the possible contributions of vaping, e-cigarette use and passive smoking and whether the proportion of deaths due to obesity and excess body fat differs by ethnicity.

Meta-analysis quantifies lifestyle factors accounting for RA incidence

More information:
“Changes over 15 years in the contribution of adiposity and smoking to deaths in England and Scotland” BMC Public Health (2021). DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10167-3

Provided by
BioMed Central

More deaths in England and Scotland may be due to obesity and excess body fat than smoking (2021, February 10)
retrieved 10 February 2021

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Thank you for reading this news article on Healthy Living news published as “More deaths in England and Scotland may be due to obesity and excess body fat than smoking”. This story is posted by My Local Pages Australia as part of our World sports news services.

#deaths #England #Scotland #due #obesity #excess #body #fat #smoking

Source link

| Obesity Worsens COVID-19 Risks, OutcomesTalking About Men’s Health™

Dozens of studies have reported that many of the sickest COVID-19 patients have been people who are obese. Large new population studies have cemented the association and demonstrated that even people who are merely overweight are at higher risk.

In the first meta-analysis of its kind, published on August 26 in Obesity Reviews, an international team of researchers pooled data from scores of peer-reviewed papers capturing 399,000 patients. The researchers found that people with obesity who contracted SARS-CoV-2 were 113 percent more likely than people of healthy weight to land in the hospital, 74 percent more likely to be admitted to an ICU, and 48 percent more likely to die.

The severity of COVID-19 in people with obesity helps explain the pandemic’s disproportionate toll in some groups. In American Indians and Alaska Natives, for example, poverty, lack of access to healthy food, lack of health insurance, and poor exercise opportunities combine to render “rates of obesity … remarkably high,” Spero Manson, a Pembina Chippewa who is a medical anthropologist at the University of Colorado’s School of Public Health, told Science magazine reporter Meredith Wadman.  And obesity “is connected to all these other [illnesses], such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, rendering us susceptible” to severe COVID-19, Manson said. Latino men more are more likely to be obese than their non-Latino peers, and they are also traditionally underrepresented in research.

As researchers learn more about the connection between obesity and COVID-19 outcomes, some are working to help men manage their weight more effectively.

The HOMBRE Trial, funded by the Patient-Centered Outcome Research Institute (PCORI), recruited more than 400 Latino men with obesity and one or more other cardiovascular disease risk factors to enroll in a culturally tailored version of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), an evidence-based behavioral modification program that has shown promise in reducing obesity, but hasn’t been studied thoroughly among disadvantaged populations.

The HOMBRE Trial offered three delivery methods of culturally tailored DPP to participants: traditional in-person group sessions, group sessions via videoconference, and individual, online-only classes. The research team was interested in the pluses and minuses of each delivery method, in hopes that the results could boost participation in DPP.

Participants who chose the in-person group tended to be older and were more likely to only speak Spanish compared to participants who chose one of the online modalities. Those who chose the online options were more likely to be married and employed full-time, citing the convenience of the online options with their schedules. The research team also found that the in-person sessions thrived with a larger group and a longer session duration, while the online group-therapy modality participants preferred smaller groups. Both online options were best suited for shorter sessions than the in-person group.

Source link

Ban junk food ads on public transport and other WA Government property, health agencies say

Leading health agencies including the Telethon Kids Institute and the Cancer Council want the WA Government to immediately stop advertising junk food on government property like bus shelters, billboards and next to train stations.

The agencies have released a new report which says it will not only improve people’s health but will help save the Government hundreds of millions of dollars over the next decade in the fight against obesity and other chronic diseases.

The Cancer Council’s director of cancer prevention, Melissa Ledger, said the ban would be easy for the State Government to put in place.

“We really want to see the Government stop allowing junk food industries to advertise on their property,” she said.

Yagan Square’s giant digital tower in Perth’s CBD is one Government asset used to advertise junk food.(ABC News: Nocilas Perpitch)

Parents like Cat Walker, from Parents’ Voice Australia, said it was hard enough getting her children to eat healthy food without the advertising they saw every day.

“We live on a street that has a bus go by every 15 minutes, and my seven-year-old now reads all the ads out to the other children and they look fun, and he’s like, ‘Why can’t we have slushies, why can’t we have that?'” Ms Walker said.

“I feel the Government needs to be more responsible for marketing to our children. We want a free, healthy environment for them to grow up.”

A head and shoulders shot of a woman with blonde hair and a black hat standing in front of bushland.
Cat Walker says it “doesn’t make any sense” to throw junk food ads at children.(ABC News: Nicolas Perpitch)

Quarter of WA kids overweight or obese

The report was compiled by Deakin University for the Cancer Council WA and the Telethon Kids Institute and has the support of other health agencies, including Healthways, the Australian Medical Association, the WA School Canteen Association and the Public Health Association WA.

It noted just over two in three adults and a quarter of all children in Western Australia were either overweight or obese.

Telethon Kids director Jonathan Carapetis said the social, health and economic implications were substantial if the trend continued.

“Yet in the next 10 years it will cost them more than $600 million a year to care for the chronic diseases that result from that sort of advertising that leads to kids eating and drinking junk foods.”

The Government’s own Sustainable Health Review, released in April 2019, called for a ban on unhealthy food and drink promotions on all state premises, as part of efforts to stop the rise in obesity in WA by July 2024.

The report pointed to four other jurisdictions which already had regulations in place banning advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages specifically on public-owned assets.

London, the Australian Capital Territory and Amsterdam target public transport, while Brazil focuses on the Ministry of Health and its property.

An overweight child holds his hands to his stomach
A junk food ad ban would help tacke obesity levels among children and adults, health agencies say.(Flickr: Kiril Pipo)

‘Profit above health’ a big obstacle

The report said common factors in those jurisdictions were effective partnerships across levels of government, academia and non-governmental organisations, backed by strong political leadership.

But it warned there could be opposition from the food, media and advertising industries.

An advertisement for Hungry Jacks drinks at a bus stop, with a woman riding a bike off to the right.
Parents say the Government should be more responsible for junk food advertisements.(ABC News: Jon Sambell)

“One of the big obstacles to this not happening is really the self-interests of the industries and putting profit above health,” Ms Ledger said.

Regardless, Ms Walker and the health agencies ultimately want tighter guidelines around marketing towards children overall.

“It doesn’t make any sense.”

No commitment from government

Health Minister Roger Cook did not say the Government would immediately implement the ban.

He instead pointed to a range of measures the Government was taking to encourage healthy eating among West Australians.

Mr Cook said the Government recently committed to phasing out alcohol advertising on public transport and “further restrictions on advertising may be considered in future as part of the Sustainable Health Review”.

A pile of junk food and snacks.
Junk food leads to chronic diseases and a massive public health cost, critics say.(Dave Hunt, file photo: AAP)

Source link

Obesity a ‘major risk factor’ for coronavirus hospitalisations

General Practitioner Dr Peter Lewis says “after age, obesity is the second most important risk factor which triples your chances of being admitted to hospital”.

Dr Lewis said it was important for obese individuals to lose weight in order to reduce their chances of ending up in an ICU bed but also for the community to keep ICU beds open.

Regular exercise will not only help individuals lose weight, but it will have the added benefit of improving sleep patterns and warding of depression which has become more prevalent during the lockdown, Dr Lewis said.

Source link