Eureka Prizes reward research that pumps up the amount of energy we can get from sewage


This year’s “Oscars of science” celebrate the work of a researcher who’s been trying to get power from poo, citizen scientists using drones to help create 3D models of coastal communities, and the ABC’s daily coronavirus podcast Coronacast.

These winners were among the 17 recipients of tonight’s annual Australian Museum Eureka Awards, which celebrate research and innovation, leadership, science engagement and school science.

It’s possible to get at least five times as much energy out of sewage than we do at the moment, says environmental engineer Qilin Wang of the University of Technology Sydney, one of tonight’s winners.

“Sewage treatment actually accounts for 10 to 25 per cent of the municipal energy consumption,” said Dr Wang, who was awarded the Eureka Prize for Outstanding Early Career Researcher.

Treatment includes removing organic material and nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous.

While it’s possible to produce biogas from organic material in sewage to help power the treatment, this conversion process is currently not very efficient.

But Dr Wang has discovered that a by-product of sewage treatment, free ammonia, can be used to improve the efficiency of this process.

And it can also boost the amount of organic material available to be converted into energy in the first place.

“We can increase the amount of energy recovered by more than five times compared to what is currently achievable,” Dr Wang said.

“This energy can be used to run the wastewater treatment plant and if we have extra energy left this can be put into the grid.”

Dr Wang’s research has been patented and is currently in the process of being commercialised globally.

Citizens make 3D models of the coast

A project that gets citizen scientists to make 3D models of coastal erosion was among those awarded a Eureka Prize for science engagement.(Supplied: Victorian Coastal Monitoring Program)

The Victorian Coastal Monitoring Program was awarded the Eureka Prize for Innovation in Citizen Science.

The program trains citizen scientists to use drones to monitor the coast and predict how beaches will respond to storms and rising sea levels.

The drones collect high quality research grade data that is used to build 3D models of the coast.

“We can even image footprints,” team member Dr David Kennedy from the University of Melbourne, said.

“It really is a global first.”

Other team members come from Deakin University, the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning and a company called Propellor Aerobotics.

Citizen scientists not only fly the drones but decide when to carry out surveys and analyse the data on a cloud platform to track the movement of sand.

Karina Sorrell, team member of the Victorian Coastal Monitoring Program
Karina Sorrell, a team member of the Victorian Coastal Monitoring Program with one of the drones used to collect coastal data.(Supplied: Victorian Coastal Monitoring Program)

Data is revealing how sand is removed and returned to a beach by storms and tides. This is becoming increasingly important as climate change is increasing the area of coast affected

“Sand is never lost on a beach, it simply moves somewhere else and usually comes back,” Dr Kennedy said.

Understanding this natural cycle is an important part of preserving our coastline.

The data collected is publicly available for anyone to use and can be used to inform coastal development and repair work.

School students explain the physics of water

For the up and coming science enthusiasts, the University of Sydney Sleek Geeks Science Eureka Prize was awarded for two student videos exploring the physics of water.

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Scarlett P. and Scarlett O. from Oak Flats Primary School in NSW used claymation and dance to explain the process of ‘supercooling’, where a liquid is chilled below its freezing point without it becoming solid.

And Himalaya J. from Balwyn High School in Victoria used song and animation to explain why water droplets on a window pane move closer together until they merge in a video called ‘The Secret Life of Droplets’.

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ABC’s Coronacast wins journalism prize

Coronacast, the ABC’s daily podcast on all things COVID-19, won the Eureka Prize for Science Journalism.

Hosted by Dr Norman Swan and Tegan Taylor and produced by Will Ockendon, the podcast gives evidence-based answers to questions from the audience and many Australians now rely on it as a trusted source of information about the coronavirus pandemic.

The team also won a Walkley Award for the podcast earlier this week.

Two of the award-winning Coronacast team Tegan Taylor and Dr Norman Swan.
Two of the award-winning Coronacast team Tegan Taylor and Dr Norman Swan.(Supplied)

Other winners

Other winners of Eureka prizes included:

  • A team from Monash University and ANSTO whose work is helping to develop pharmaceutical ‘milkshakes’, including formulations for children to treat diseases like malaria.
  • A University of Sydney researcher Professor Dacheng Tao who is developing innovative algorithms to help driverless cars detect objects on the road.
  • Research to help restore Australia’s shellfish reefs by The Nature Conservancy; James Cook University; University of Adelaide; and University of Tasmania
  • Metabolic disease research by Professor Mark Febbraio, Monash University that could improve glucose metabolism, progressing new drug therapies for people living with diabetes.
  • Associate Professor Asha Bowen, Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases; Telethon Kids Institute for infectious disease research reducing the burden of skin infections for Aboriginal children living in remote communities.
  • The CSIRO Indigenous STEM Education Project, which improves Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander student aspiration, achievement and participation in STEM.
CSIRO Indigenous STEM Education Project
Participants in the CSIRO Indigenous STEM Education Project.(Supplied: CSIRO)



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Coronavirus detected in Victorian sewage as state records 22 days with no new cases | Australia news


Victoria has only one active Covid-19 case but authorities are concerned about traces of the virus unexpectedly found at a Melbourne wastewater facility.

Victoria has gone 22 days with no new coronavirus cases while on Saturday New South Wales recorded 10 new cases in hotel quarantine. Queensland announced two new coronavirus cases and Western Australia one – all of which were in hotel quarantine.

In Victoria, one patient was cleared in the past 24 hours, leaving just one active case, that of an immunosuppressed person the state’s health minister, Martin Foley, said on Saturday was making a “slow and steady” recovery.

A weak-positive case that was under review, that of an elderly woman, had been ruled negative.

Authorities have issued a plea for residents and visitors to Altona in Melbourne’s south-west from last Monday to Wednesday to get tested if they have even mild symptoms after virus traces were detected in a wastewater sample collected from the Altona sewage catchment on Wednesday. The result was unexpected because it had been about eight weeks since someone in the area tested positive.

Suburbs in the catchment included Altona, Altona Meadows, Laverton, Point Cook and Sanctuary Lakes.

“It could mean there is somebody in the community that we have missed,” Foley said.

He said the detection could have come from someone travelling through the suburbs or virus shedding from an old case.

NSW has reached two weeks – one complete infection cycle – without a single locally transmitted coronavirus case.

Ten cases of the virus were diagnosed in hotel quarantine in the 24 hours to 8pm on Friday, from more than 16,000 tests. NSW Health is still treating 70 cases compared with Victoria’s single active case.

“While there have been no new locally acquired cases in NSW for the past 14 days, we continue to encourage people to get tested, even if they display only the mildest of symptoms such as a runny nose, scratchy throat, cough or fever,” NSW Health’s Dr Jan Fizzell said on Saturday.

The Queensland premier, Annastacia Palaszczuk, reported two new confirmed cases in the state, both acquired overseas and detected in hotel quarantine.

Annastacia Palaszczuk
(@AnnastaciaMP)

Today’s new cases were both acquired overseas and detected in hotel quarantine.


November 20, 2020

Western Australian health authorities said the state’s new case brought its total to 797. The confirmed case was a woman in her 30s who returned to Perth from overseas and was in hotel quarantine.

Also on Saturday, the prime minister, Scott Morrison, welcomed a joint statement from Asia-Pacific leaders calling for free and predictable trade for economic recovery out of the coronavirus pandemic.

Leaders of the 21-nation Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (Apec) group, including the US president, Donald Trump, and the Chinese president, Xi Jinping, agreed they would not resort to protectionist policies.

The joint communique, after a virtual summit hosted on Friday by Malaysia, was made in the midst of ongoing trade tensions between the world’s two largest economies.

“It was a very positive meeting,” Morrison told Australian reporters via video link from the Lodge in Canberra on Saturday. “People are very focused on vaccines and affordable early access of safe vaccines – not just in developed countries but in developing countries – and on the recovery, that trade will play such an important role in going forward.”

Morrison is in quarantine at the Lodge following his trip to Japan to meet with its new prime minister, Yoshihide Suga.

He also appeared in a joint virtual press conference with the Victorian premier, Daniel Andrews, to announce the route for a long-awaited Melbourne airport-to-city rail link, with travellers being promised trains every 10 minutes for a less than 30-minute trip.

Both governments have each committed $5bn to the project. Both leaders said the rail link would underpin economic recovery out of the Covid-19 pandemic, giving the construction industry work and creating thousands of jobs.

A rail journey between the CBD and Tullamarine airport 20km away has been long-desired by Victorians, who unlike residents in other states, have relied on a Skybus service from Southern Cross Station or taxis for public transport. Construction is expected to kick off in late 2022 and be completed by 2029.

The rail link will run via Sunshine in Melbourne’s west, which the state government wanted in order to connect to multiple regional rail lines.

Geelong, Ballarat and Bendigo passengers will get to the airport by changing trains at Sunshine, while travellers from Gippsland in the state’s east will connect into the airport line by changing along the Cranbourne or Pakenham lines.

Melbourne residents along these south-eastern lines – the city’s busiest – will be able to travel 85km direct to the airport in the outer north-west.

All city loop trains will connect to airport trains at Flinders Street and Melbourne Central meaning most Victorians will be able get to the airport by changing trains only once.

The federal and state governments also announced a faster rail link between Melbourne and Geelong, costing them $2bn each. They said it would cut the current 70-minute trip to 50 minutes.

Victoria is preparing for the reinstatement of hotel quarantine, which sparked the second coronavirus wave, when international arrivals resume on 7 December. Initially, the traveller cap will be 160 per day.

The coronavirus pandemic and Victoria’s 112-day lockdown has decimated the state’s coffers, with the state’s treasurer, Tim Pallas, expected to outline a $23.3bn deficit and more than $150bn in net debt in Tuesday’s budget.

The budget also expected to include tax cuts and incentives to lure global companies to the state, as well as already-announced boosts for mental health and social housing.

Australian Associated Press contributed to this report





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Bathurst 1000, COVID-19, Supercars, raw sewage, tests, symptoms


Participants and spectators at this year’s Bathurst 1000 have been urged to monitor for symptoms of COVID-19 after the virus was detected in sewage.

NSW Health on Wednesday night placed anyone who was at the race, as well as Bathurst residents, on high alert after remnants of the virus was found in the area.

The public health alert says the sample could indicate a current or previous infection in someone who attended Sunday’s race.

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SVG the Champion of Bathurst

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Two Victorian schools closed as COVID cases spread to social housing block, Alerts for Bathurst 1000 visitors after virus found in raw sewage, Coronavirus cases surge across US, Australia death toll at 905


“This timeframe allows for the department to ensure the community is aware of the situation and for residents to get tested and get their results back before determining what the next steps are,” Victoria’s commander of testing and community engagement, Jeroen Weimar, said.

“We’re asking all these residents to come forward for asymptomatic testing at the dedicated testing station on site.”

The East Preston Islamic College has been closed for deep cleaning after it was revealed a student who was supposed to be self-isolating as they were a close contact of a positive case had attended school due to a misunderstanding.

“The college has taken positive steps to manage this situation and is working closely with us. It has been closed for deep cleaning,” Mr Weimar said.

“We need everyone working together to tackle this virus, and that’s exactly what the school community is doing. Staff and students who are close contacts – and their households – have been identified and are quarantining for 14 days.

“Extensive contact tracing is underway and we expect that as part of this work, additional cases will be detected.”

The Dallas Brooks Primary School has also been closed for deep cleaning.

A text message was sent to residents in the northern suburbs, urging them to get tested if they experienced any symptoms.

Pop-up testing sites and a community outreach program will be launched today.

Banyule Community Health and Himilo Community Connect will doorknock the area on Thursday to alert residents to the outbreak and provide information about testing and supports like financial assistance for missing work.

“We’re asking everyone who lives in this area or who has loved ones linked to these suburbs to please get tested if they have symptoms and to share this information within their families and broader community,” Mr Weimar said.



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Warning for Bathurst 1000 attendees in NSW after coronavirus remnants found in sewage



Anyone who was at the Bathurst 1000 motor race on the weekend is being urged to get tested if they show symptoms of COVID-19 after virus traces were found in local sewage.

The wastewater sample from the weekend could indicate an infection in someone who attended or worked at the race, a visitor to Bathurst, or a local resident, NSW Health said in a statement on Wednesday night.

Local residents or weekend visitors showing even mild symptoms should immediately isolate and get tested and remain in isolation until a negative result is received.

“NSW Health is urgently undertaking investigations, which include reviewing lists of all those known to have had the virus who attended or worked at the race.”

The latest warning came as restrictions were further eased in NSW, with congregations up to 300 being allowed at places of worship from Friday after religious leaders complained about “inconsistent” restrictions.

Staffing at gyms will also be relaxed, with a COVID safety marshal only required when more than 20 people are working out.

“This is a great announcement for the body and the soul, so whatever you worship, there’s something for you in this one,” Treasurer Dominic Perrottet told reporters on Wednesday.

Hillsong pastor Brian Houston had earlier on Wednesday said churches were being left behind as other COVID-19 restrictions eased, with 300 guests being allowed at weddings from December.

Mr Houston’s Sydney mega-church has a 4000-person capacity but services were restricted to just 100 people.

“(At) the grand final this week, 40,000 to 45,000 people (will be) hugging, shouting, spitting, high-fiving – it’s just the inconsistency of it,” Mr Houston told Sydney radio 2GB.

Health Minister Brad Hazzard said he was sorry if some religious leaders felt they were being ignored but he only heard of their concerns through the media.

Exemptions had been granted for a number of large churches, he said.

It comes as NSW has recorded two new cases of locally transmitted COVID-19 – both linked to known clusters – while testing rates doubled overnight.

Nearly 15,000 people heeded NSW Health’s plea for more people to get tested, compared with just 7,401 in the previous 24 hours.

Eight cases were diagnosed in returned travellers in hotel quarantine.

A public health alert has also been issued for Bavarian Macarthur in Macarthur Square at Campbelltown, with a confirmed case having visited on the evening of 10 October.

Anyone who dined at the restaurant for an hour or more must immediately get tested and isolate for 14 days and stay isolated for the entire period, even if their test was negative.

Anyone who was there for less than an hour must monitor for symptoms and get tested immediately if they develop any symptoms and after testing, they must remain in isolation until a negative result is received.

NSW Health is treating 72 cases, with one patient in intensive care.

People in Australia must stay at least 1.5 metres away from others. Check your jurisdiction’s restrictions on gathering limits. If you are experiencing cold or flu symptoms, stay home and arrange a test by calling your doctor or contact the Coronavirus Health Information Hotline on 1800 020 080.

News and information is available in 63 languages at sbs.com.au/coronavirus.

Please check the relevant guidelines for your state or territory: NSW, VictoriaQueenslandWestern AustraliaSouth AustraliaNorthern TerritoryACTTasmania.



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Coronavirus detected in South East Queensland sewage samples



Samples of sewage taken from Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast have tested positive for coronavirus.

Traces of coronavirus were found in Townsville’s sewage earlier this month, which Chief Health Officer Jeannette Young said could have been from an asymptomatic person still shedding the virus.

Wastewater in Townsville, in north Queensland, has since tested negative but samples from October 12 and 13 taken at Sandgate, Maroochydore and Wynnum in the state’s south-east tested positive.

“It could of course be someone who recently had the infection and then has gone to those places, so they’re not infectious, they’ve recovered but they’re still shedding virus, it could be that,” Dr Young said.

“But it could of course be a person that we’ve not picked up, that’s out there in the community.

“We have most recently seen, both in Victoria and New South Wales, that when they’ve had positive results in their sewage, they’ve gone out then and done more testing and they have found cases.

“That could be happening here in Queensland, so although it’s now over a month since we’ve had an infectious case in the community, we could have an infectious case again any day.”

Queensland recorded no new cases of coronavirus overnight.

The state’s total remains at 1,164 with four cases still listed as active.

Dr Young said it was “absolutely critical’ any new cases were detected as soon as possible for the health system to be able to manage them.

“We don’t know how long, someone can continue to shed the virus, we know from other situations you can shed virus for months and months and months, it’s probably the case here,” she said.

Blood samples from an woman who tested positive, several days after leaving Queensland and arriving in Victoria, have also now tested negative in serology tests.

Dr Young said the samples were taken before the woman left Queensland and before she was showing any symptoms.

“It doesn’t confirm anything but it just suggests that she didn’t have the infection while she was in Queensland,” she said.

The woman had visited several locations in Townsville and Cairns, including medical facilities, before flying to Melbourne on October 7 .

Dr Young said Queensland Health was still waiting on results from tests in Melbourne to confirm the woman’s case.



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Sewage water testing under way across 25 Victorian sites as state records 76 new virus cases


Victoria is using every method it can to try to stay one step ahead of the coronavirus, and this one has a “critical role” to play.

Upon confirmation of 76 new virus cases and 11 more deaths on Wednesday, Department of Health and Human Services testing commander Jeroen Weimar revealed sewage water testing would play a “critical role” in discovering new cases of COVID-19.

“We are taking samples at the 25 sample locations to see if there are changes in the level of coronavirus present in the wastewater. Apollo Bay is interesting. It was of the 25 sites the one location where, at the start of the work two weeks ago, there were no positive traces at all of coronavirus because we have had no confirmed cases to date there,” he told reporters.

“Then, on 1st September, we picked up the first positive sign of some traces of coronavirus in the Apollo Bay water catchment and we picked it up again a second time on the 5th of September.”

RELATED: Victoria records 76 news cases

Camera IconDepartment of Health’s Jeroen Weimar says sewage testing for COVID-19 can play a crucial role in discovering new cases. Credit: News Corp Australia, Andrew Henshaw/NCA NewsWire

Many Apollo Bay residents have since come forward for testing without a confirmed case.

Mr Weimar also hinted at “disturbing cases” in Altona North in Melbourne’s west.

“I would like to particularly appreciate the people of Altona North. We encouraged people there to come forward over the last few days. We have seen some disturbing cases in the Altona North area,” he said.

“We are seeing a number of people in the community coming forward to get tested. That all enables us to get on top of this and get on top of the coronavirus at its very earliest stage.”

Melbourne Water’s Nick Crosby backed the testing and was adamant someone in Apollo Boy was COVID-19 positive despite no confirmed case through DHHS testing.

“The method is very well validated. We are very confident that the result means that we have detected the virus fragment. So there is someone in Apollo Bay … someone has excreted coronavirus at some stage in the catchment of Apollo Bay,” he said.

Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews says sewage water testing is ‘leading’ and ‘world class’.
Camera IconVictorian Premier Daniel Andrews says sewage water testing is ‘leading’ and ‘world class’. Credit: News Corp Australia, Andrew Henshaw/NCA NewsWire

Premier Daniel Andrews said the testing was “leading” and “world class”.

“Every tool, every mechanism that can be used in order to try and stay a step ahead of this virus, particularly in regional Victoria right now, but in metropolitan Melbourne as numbers continue to fall, will be very important, and that is why an enormous amount of work has gone into trial and to make sure the efficacy of this is up to scratch,” he said.

“It is just one example of many different continuous improvements we have made, many different approaches and trying to be as open as possible to looking at different ways of doing things that serves us well and certainly will be of even greater benefit once we get down to very low numbers and the strategy is absolutely reliant and dependent on keeping those numbers as low as possible.”



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UK imports tonnes of Dutch sewage sludge ‘for agricultural benefit’ sparking toxicity concerns


The UK is importing 27,500 tonnes of sewage sludge containing human waste from the Netherlands for agricultural purposes, despite concerns over its toxicity for human health and the environment.

A permit for 15 shipments was issued in February by the UK”s Environment Agency, according to documents obtained by Greenpeace’s Unearthed investigative unit and seen by Euronews.

The notification provides for the expedition until November 2020 of “dewatered municipal sewage sludge” as part of the “recycling/reclamation of organic substances that are not used as solvents” and for “agricultural benefit” — i.e. fertilisers to use on farmlands.

Unearthed‘s investigation found out that investigators commissioned by the UK’s Environment Agency uncovered that sewage waste was contaminated with “persistent organic pollutants” or microplastics and still tested positive for salmonella or “high concentrations of e-coli”.

In their report, they had warned UK authorities that the routine spread of sludge as fertiliser may ultimately leave soil “unsuitable for agriculture” and pose a serious risk to human health.

The Netherlands has banned the spreading of sludge on farmland since 1995 but has been looking for new disposal destinations after a crisis at an Amsterdam waste incineration company.

“The sludge that is spread onto our farms and fields has become such a toxic cocktail of plastics, chemicals and bacteria. Add waste from the Netherlands into the mix and the risk of further contamination is only going to skyrocket,” Greenpeace UK’s executive director, John Sauven, said.

While the UK legislation sets potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration limits when spread on the surface of grassland (1200mg/kg dry solids of lead for instance), there are no set PTE concentrations in the sludge that you can use on arable soils.

The Environment Agency launched its “strategy for safe and sustainable sludge use” in July which aims at reviewing “the current regulatory regime for sludge treatment, storage and use” by 2023.

“The Environment Agency really needs to get its own house in order before we allow the UK to become a dumping ground for other countries polluted sewage,” Sauven argued.

“Spreading sewage sludge is higher up the waste hierarchy than many alternatives, such as incineration and landfill. Sewage sludge can be spread to land as fertiliser or soil improver and can be a valuable source of nutrients,” an Environment Agency spokesperson said.

“While spreading waste can have beneficial impacts on the land when used as a substitute for manufactured fertilisers, we are clear this practice must not harm the environment. We will not hesitate to take enforcement action against those who fail to manage any risks appropriately – including prosecution in the most severe cases,” they promised.



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SA breweries’ expired beer to generate renewable energy for sewage plant


Millions of litres of beer which expired at South Australian breweries amid the coronavirus pandemic has been converted into renewable energy, helping to generate enough to power a wastewater treatment plant.

The Glenelg Wastewater Treatment Plant, west of Adelaide, is using beer that expired due to reduced sales in restaurants, pubs and clubs when South Australia first introduced coronavirus restrictions in March.

The process entails discharging the beer into the site’s “digester” tanks, where it is mixed with sewage sludge, producing biogas.

The biogas is then used to feed the site’s gas engines, creating electricity.

SA Water senior manager of production and treatment Lisa Hannan said the addition of the expired beer to that process had been very welcome.

“Through the height of the COVID-19 [pandemic] we’ve been able to accept expired beer from industry … as they’ve needed to dispose of it,” she said.

“The beer is a really great waste to add into our digester because it has such a high energy value to it.

“That just means we get a greater production of the gas which we can feed to the engine and it creates much more electricity for us to use.”

She said the addition of the beer created a positive use of what would otherwise be a waste.

“That waste would normally have a greater impact to the environment,” she said.

“It’s a win for SA Water because and our customers because we can reduce our costs by generating our own electricity, and it’s a win for industry because it reduces their disposal and treatment costs.”

Part of the treatment process which removes sludge from sewage, to be used in the digesters along with industrial waste such as expired beer.(SA Water)

Brewers encouraged to dispose of waste

The wastewater treatment facility normally generates enough biogas to provide around 80 per cent of the required energy to run, but thanks to the recent influx of beer the site has become completely self-reliant.

It is something that SA Water is hopeful of sustaining once the pandemic is over.

“We’re always looking for additional trade waste customers to bring in high-strength organic waste,” Ms Hannant said.

“It’s a matter of working with the industry so we can try and get as much high-organic waste as we can into the plant, but also help them out.”

The beer SA Water has received so far came from larger organisations in South Australia, but smaller breweries and home brewers are also encouraged to dispose of their waste.

“I would absolutely encourage them to make contact with our trade waste unit at SA Water and talk through what the options might be,” Ms Hannant said.



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Taralga sewage treatment plant spill sparks EPA notification | Goulburn Post



news, local-news, Taralga, stormwater spill, EPA, sewage treatment plant, notification, Colleen Worthy, Upper Lachlan Shire Council

Upper Lachlan Shire Council has notified the state’s environment watchdog after a spill at Taralga’s sewage treatment plant. Council general manager Colleen Worthy said heavy rain had caused the “stormwater-induced spill.” She has reassured the community there was no immediate health concern and said it had been reported to the Environment Protection Authority. Daily monitoring was underway and would continue until the processed water stopped flowing. ALSO READ: Wombeyan Caves Road wins council care and attention “During recent heavy rains, storm water entered the sewage system at Taralga,” she said “The volume of water entering the sewage treatment plant intake increased substantially, containing mostly storm water.” Mrs Worthy said that there was no change to the volume of water that left the plant having been processed, but that it was too much for the output buffer dam to store. ALSO READ: ‘Outrageous’: Farmers hit out at rural rate hike “During normal operation, when the flow rate is less, the processed recycled water is used by the Council,” she said. “Due to the very high flows during the storm, some of the processed recycled water that could not be used up by the council has overflowed from the output buffer dam and been discharged into the creek, whereas during normal operation nothing leaves the sewage treatment plant.” Did you know the Goulburn Post is now offering breaking news alerts and a weekly email newsletter? Keep up-to-date with all the local news: sign up here.

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