Pakistani court bans TikTok after petition was filed against its ‘immoral and indecent’ content – media — RT World News



The Peshawar High Court has ruled in favor of a man who petitioned it to ban the video sharing app, which is popular among teenagers, on moral grounds, local media reported.

The court ruled that the ban should be applied starting from Thursday, according to Dunya News. The petition was first reported in September 2020, after an unidentified man complained to the court and other government bodies about TikTok. He argued that the platform promotes “vulgar” and “pornographic” content harmful to Pakistani youth and claimed that this leads to an increase in suicide rates in the country.

Also, in July, the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) – one of the recipients of the complaint in question – issued a warning to TikTok, demanding that it introduce moderation of “obscenity, vulgarity, and immorality through its social media platform.” The regulator said it was the final warning for the service.

The ban issued by the Peshawar High Court will remain in place until TikTok takes action against objectionable content, Chief Justice Qaiser Rashid Khan said.

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Russia targets Twitter speed over ‘banned content’


When big rallies took place across Russia over his detention, the media watchdog warned Twitter, TikTok, Facebook and other sites that fines would be imposed if posts urging young people to protest were not deleted. Earlier this month Russian authorities said they were suing Twitter and four other social media companies for allegedly failing to delete such posts.

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Content Moderation Case Study: Decentralized Social Media Platform Mastodon Deals With An Influx Of Gab Users (2019)


from the decentralized-content-moderation-challenges dept

Summary: Formed as a more decentralized alternative to Twitter that allowed users to more directly moderate the content they wanted to see, Mastodon has experienced slow, but steady, growth since its inception in 2016.

Unlike other social media networks, Mastodon is built on open-source software and each “instance” (server node) of the network is operated by users. These separate “instances” can be connected with others via Mastodon’s interlinked “fediverse.” Or they can remain independent, creating a completely siloed version of Mastodon that has no connection with the service’s larger “fediverse.”

This puts a lot of power in the hands of the individuals who operate each instance: they can set their own rules, moderate content directly, and prevent anything the “instance” and its users find undesirable from appearing on their servers. But the larger “fediverse” — with its combined user base — poses moderation problems that can’t be handled as easily as those presenting themselves on independent “instances.” The connected “fediverse” allows instances to interact with each other, allowing unwanted content to appear on servers that are trying to steer clear of it.

That’s where Gab — another Twitter alternative — enters the picture. Gab has purposely courted users banned from other social media services. Consequently, the platform has developed a reputation for being a haven for hate speech, racists, and bigots of all varieties. This toxic collection of content/users led to both Apple and Google banning Gab’s app from their app stores.

Faced with this app ban, Gab began looking for options. It decided to create its own Mastodon instance. With its server now technically available to everyone in the Mastodon “fediverse,” those not explicitly blocking Gab’s “instance” could find Gab content available to its users — and also allow for Gab’s users to direct content to their own users. It also allowed Gab to utilize the many different existing Mastodon apps to sidestep the app bans handed down by Google and Apple.

Decisions to be made by Mastodon:

  • Should Gab (and its users) be banned from setting up “instances,” given that they likely violate the Mastodon Server Covenant?

  • Is it possible to moderate content across a large number of independent nodes?

  • Is this even an issue for Mastodon itself to deal with, given that the individuals running different servers can decide for themselves whether or not to allow federation with the Gab instance?

  • Given the open source and federated nature of Mastodon, would there reasonably be any way to stop Gab from using Mastodon?

Questions and policy implications to consider:

  • Will moderation efforts targeting the “fediverse” undercut the independence granted to “instance” owners?

  • Do attempts to attract more users create moderation friction when the newly-arriving users create content Mastodon was created to avoid?

  • If Mastodon continues to scale, will it always face challenges as certain instances are created to appeal to audiences that the rest of the “fediverse” is trying to avoid?

  • Can a federated system, in which unique instances choose not to federate with another instance, such as Gab, work as a form of “moderation-by-exclusion”?

Resolution: Mastodon’s founder, Eugen Rochko, refused to create a blanket ban on Gab, leaving it up to individual “instances” to decide whether or not to interact with the interlopers. As he explained to The Verge, a blanket ban would be almost impossible, given the decentralized nature of the service.

On the other hand, most “fediverse” members would be unlikely to have to deal with Gab or its users, considering the content contained in Gab’s “instance” routinely violates the Mastodon “covenant.” Violating these rules prevents instances from being listed by Mastodon itself, lowering the chances of other “instance” owners inadvertently adding toxic content and users to their server nodes. And Rochko himself encouraged users to preemptively block Gab’s “instance,” resulting in ever fewer users being affected by Gab’s attempted invasion of the Mastodon fediverse.

But running a decentralized system creates an entirely new set of moderation issues, which has turned Mastodon itself into a moderation target. Roughly a year after the Gab “invasion,” Google threatened to pull Mastodon-based apps from its store for promoting hate speech, after users tried to get around the Play Store ban by creating apps that pointed to Mastodon “instances” filled with hateful content. Google ultimately decided to leave Mastodon-based apps up, but appears ready to pull the trigger on a ban in future.

Originally posted to the Trust & Safety Foundation website.

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Twitter considers charging users for special content, in revenue push


San Francisco: Twitter said Thursday it plans to offer a subscription service in which users would pay for special content from high-profile accounts, part of an economic model to diversify its revenue.

The globally popular social media platform announced the potential new Super Follows service at its annual investor meeting, as it searches for new revenue streams beyond targeted advertising.

 

“Exploring audience funding opportunities like Super Follows will allow creators and publishers to be directly supported by their audience and will incentivize them to continue creating content that their audience loves,” a Twitter spokesperson told AFP.

Top Twitter executives discussed Super Follows while outlining goals and plans for the near future during the streamed presentation.

“We are examining and rethinking the incentives of our service — the behaviors that our product features encourage and discourage as people participate in conversation on Twitter,” the spokesperson said.

 

Super Follows was described during the presentation as a way for Twitter audiences to financially support creators and receive newsletters, exclusive content and even virtual badges in exchange.

Twitter, which currently makes money from ads and promoted posts, might be able to add additional revenue via the Super Follows transactions.

Creative Strategies analyst Carolina Milanesi was not convinced people will be inclined to pay for special content on Twitter.

Such a model makes sense for content on platforms like YouTube, where hours of craftsmanship might be devoted to producing entertaining videos, but it is debatable whether the same could be said for tweets on Twitter, she said.

 

No timeline was given for when Super Follows might become a feature, but it is expected that the tech giant will make further announcements in the coming months.

Building communities

Twitter is also considering allowing users to join communities devoted to topics via a feature seemingly similar to Facebook’s “groups.”

Twitter aims to reach a milestone of 315 million “monetizable” users in 2023, a steep increase from the 192 million it had at the end of last year, according to a filing with US financial markets regulators at the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

The San Francisco-based firm defined monetizable users as people who log in daily and can be shown ads.

Twitter, like Google and Facebook, makes most of its money from digital advertising.

The company said it is aiming for $7.5 billion in revenue in 2023, more than double the $3.7 billion it took in last year.

Twitter also plans to double “development velocity,” meaning the number of new features it releases per employee to get people to engage more with the service.

Apple bite

Twitter revenue product lead Bruce Falck told analysts that the tech company was mindful of a potential crimp in revenue that could be caused by new privacy labels Apple is mandating for apps on its mobile devices.

 

App makers are concerned that the labels will discourage users from allowing collection of data used to more effectively target ads.

“It’s still too early to tell exactly how this will impact the industry, but it will be felt by the entire industry,” Falck said, adding that Twitter was innovating to soften the blow.

Twitter’s plan to boost revenue also includes getting more involved in online commerce.

“Imagine easily discovering and quickly purchasing a new skincare product, or trendy sneaker from a brand new follow with only a few clicks,” a Twitter executive told analysts.

 

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2021 holds promise for small businesses – capitalise on it with compelling content


Let’s just say 2021 may not entirely be the new start many of us were hoping for. But vaccine rollouts on the horizon aren’t the only reason for small businesses to feel optimistic.

In reality, this year can be a fantastic opportunity for many small businesses. Many Aussies realise that small businesses have been through the wringer in 2020 – and they want to do their bit to support the sector.

This creates an opening for small businesses across Australia to broaden their customer base and offset some of the losses caused by 2020’s lockdowns. With the pandemic continuing through 2021, our reliance and support for our communities will continue to prevail.

For those small businesses looking to make the most of this opportunity, here are three key considerations to keep in mind in 2021:

The value of video

Gotten to know Netflix on a deeper level during the pandemic? You’re not alone. By bringing more video into your marketing materials, you can more easily grab potential customers’ attention and keep them engaged.

Next step: Think about where video might be more effective than images to communicate your key messages for the year. If you find gaps in your content library, consider how you could fill them with stock footage or repurpose footage you already have.

Dive into diversity and sustainability

Between ongoing economic uncertainty and consumers bombarded by more digital media ever – up 19 per cent in 2020 – it’s an especially crucial year for businesses to get visual communication right if they want to stand out.

Our Visual GPS research suggests that while four in five consumers say they expect brands to be consistently committed to diversity and inclusion, only half of them feel accurately represented. Nearly 80 per cent of ANZ consumers feel companies need to do a better job at capturing the true lifestyles and cultures of diverse people, including those of different ethnicities, abilities and age groups.

When it comes to sustainability, small details – like avoiding single-use plastics – can reflect your business’s sustainable choices in ways that could pay dividends. After all, 85 per cent of ANZ consumers expect companies to be environmentally conscious in all their advertising and communications.

Next step: Run a critical eye over your image and video library to see whether you feel it is representative and authentic, and whether it reflects your values when it comes to sustainability.

Move with the times and inspire hope

Life looks pretty different for many of us than it did a year ago. It’s no surprise that in the past year, iStock has seen a whopping 2157 per cent increase in searches for “working from home”, and a 590 per cent increase in “video conference”. It is critical that your content in 2021 is reflective of your customers’ reality.

Next step: Look for imagery that depicts authentic moments that balance what life is like today, with hopes for tomorrow.

By taking simple steps to ensure your content connects in a genuine way, your small business can set itself apart, broaden its customer base and drive growth.

Kate Rourke, Head of Creative Insights – APAC, iStock by Getty Images



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When Facebook blocked Australian news content, domestic violence services were ‘stopped in their tracks’


Domestic violence support services have labelled Facebook’s Australian news ban a “knee-jerk” reaction that has had “unintended consequences” for their organisations and the vulnerable Australians they support. 

Publishers and users in Australia are being prevented from sharing or viewing Australian and international news content, Facebook announced on Thursday, in response to the federal government’s proposed legislation to force internet platforms to pay for news content.

But other non-media organisations on the network were also hit by the ban for at least part of Thursday, including critical health, weather and domestic violence services.

These included the national sexual assault, domestic family violence and counselling service 1800Respect, Victoria’s 24/7 family violence response centre Safe Steps and Queensland’s DV Connect. 

Queensland Minister for Women and the Prevention of Domestic and Family Violence, Shannon Fentiman, posted on her social accounts a list of at least 14 organisations which had their pages wiped. 

“I was outraged when I saw this,” Ms Fentiman told SBS News, saying social media pages have played a particularly vital role protecting women and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

“The social media pages of support services are critical in better protecting victims of domestic and family violence. They provide much needed information and support to Queensland families, and ensure victims know where and how to get help,” she said. 

“It’s also a safe space for victims as they can access these services and get the essential information they need anywhere and at any time, which we can do with social media.” 

Among the affected groups was RizeUp Australia, a Queensland-based nonprofit organisation that helps to provide practical assistance to families affected by family and domestic violence.

RizeUp chief executive Nicolle Edwards said their Facebook page was blocked later on Thursday morning. 

“We woke up to this devastating news that some of the major sites – frontline services, DV Connect – were blocked. We certainly didn’t expect to be included in that,” she told SBS News. 

“Now I guess we’re seeing how far and wide this has reached. Lots of organisations, like us, were stopped in our tracks.” 

RizeUp Australia’s Facebook page remains blocked on Thursday night.

Facebook

RizeUp works as a “conduit” between the community and frontline services, and uses social media to drive awareness to the issue and the needs of vulnerable families. 

Ms Edwards said the group has between 50 and 80 people reaching out on Facebook each week. 

“Not only are we a vehicle for practical responses, we are also a soft landing for victims and families – people who are reaching out because they don’t know where else to go,” she said. 

“There are a lot of people watching what we do, and that forms part of their decision to leave a violence situation, because they can know there is life after violence. 

“For them to not be able access that, it will start to bring doubt back into their minds as to what they can do, and how to leave.” 

Ms Edwards said the ban has also affected the group’s 700-odd volunteers who connect through a closed Facebook page.

“A lot of them have come to us with some connection to the work we do, so there is a level of trauma there,” she said, adding the day brought “worry” and “panic”. 

“It shakes the foundations for a lot of people who rely on the presence of their go-to pages,” she said. 

‘Incredibly important’ for pages to be restored

Ms Fentiman said a list of affected Queensland-based domestic violence support services was sent to Facebook, which said the pages would be re-enabled. 

She said this was “so incredibly important” ahead of the first anniversary of Queensland mother Hannah Clarke’s murder by her husband on Wednesday. The ‘Small Steps 4 Hannah’ charity, set up by Ms Clarke’s family, is among those yet to be restored at time of publication. 

“I was with Sue and Lloyd Clarke this morning who expressed how upset and very disappointed they were in Facebook for taking this page down,” Ms Fentiman said. “They were just this morning about to announce a new Small Steps 4 Hannah ambassador on Facebook but couldn’t because their page was shut down.

“These pages are needed to share information, news, resources for victims of domestic and family violence and their families, but also to educate and empower the wider community so they can keep loved ones safe.”

The Facebook page for 'Small Steps 4 Hannah' remains down on Monday evening.

The Facebook page for ‘Small Steps 4 Hannah’ remains blocked on Monday evening.

Facebook

In an earlier statement to SBS News, Facebook said it would reverse the ban on pages “inadvertently impacted” but that it was forced to take a “broad definition” of what constituted news as part of the draft media bargaining laws.

“The actions we’re taking are focused on restricting publishers and people in Australia from sharing or viewing Australian and international news content,” A company spokesperson said.

“As the law does not provide clear guidance on the definition of news content, we have taken a broad definition in order to respect the law as drafted. However, we will reverse any Pages that are inadvertently impacted.” 

The Facebook page for 1800Respect has since been restored, but RizeUp, Queensland’s DV Connect and Victoria’s Safe Steps remained down at time of publication. 

RizeUp’s Ms Edwards said she will continue to strongly advocate for her organisation’s page to be restored. 

“We just need to sit strong,” she said. 

If you or someone you know is impacted by sexual assault, family or domestic violence, call 1800RESPECT on 1800 737 732 or visit 1800RESPECT.org.au. In an emergency, call 000.

You may have noticed SBS News is no longer available on Facebook

Here’s where else you can find our content and follow us:



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Josh Frydenberg says Facebook was ‘heavy-handed’ and ‘wrong’ to block Australian news content



Treasurer Josh Frydenberg has sharply criticised Facebook’s “heavy-handed” move to ban Australians sharing news.

“Facebook was wrong. Facebook’s actions were unnecessary, they were heavy-handed, and they will damage its reputation here in Australia,” Mr Frydenberg told reporters on Thursday. 

Facebook announced the decision on Thursday in response to the federal government’s proposed media bargaining code that would force internet platforms to pay for news content.

However, its move to remove news organisations has also seen other official pages censored – including those of governmental health organisations, social services, union groups and the Bureau of Meteorology.

Mr Frydenberg said the decision to block government sites including those offering support through the pandemic, mental health and emergency services was “completely unrelated to the media code.”

“What today’s events do confirm for all Australians is the immense market power of these media digital giants,” Mr Frydenberg said. 

“These digital giants loom very, very large in our economy and on the digital landscape.” 

Mr Frydenberg earlier on Thursday spoke with Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg describing their conversation as “constructive” following the censorship decision.  

But he said there remained ongoing issues to work through with Facebook over its proposed legislation. 

“We certainly want Google and Facebook to stay in Australia,” Mr Frydenberg said.

“But at the same time if you’re doing business in Australia you need to comply with the laws made by the elected Australian Parliament.”

Facebook has been engaged in negotiations with media businesses in Australia over reaching commercial deals. 

But the social media giant says the government’s proposed legislation has left it with no choice but to act. 

“As the law does not provide clear guidance on the definition of news content, we have taken a broad definition in order to respect the law as drafted,” a Facebook spokesman said in a statement.

“However, we will reverse any pages that are inadvertently impacted.”

It’s decision has prompted wide-spread backlash with Labor’s Treasury spokesperson Jim Chalmers earlier describing the situation as a “mess” of the government’s making. 

“It is up to the government to tell us what has gone on here and what they are doing to fix it,” Mr Chalmers said.

Concerns have been raised over how the news ban will impact people’s access to health information during the pandemic, including in-language services run by SBS News.

The social media giant had previously threatened to ban news for Australians in response to the media code. 

But Mr Frydenberg said Facebook had given no notice of its action to the Australian government before taking the measure.

Communications Minister Paul Fletcher said the Australian government would not back down from its legislative push in response to Facebook’s move.

“We are very clear that we think this is the wrong action by Facebook,” Mr Fletcher said. 

“Of course, we’re very clear on the proposition that we’re going to legislate the code.”

The media bargaining code is set to go to the Senate after clearing the lower house.

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Facebook to restrict Australians from sharing or viewing news content


Facebook has announced that it will restrict publishers and people in Australia from sharing or viewing Australian and international news content in response to Australia’s proposed media bargaining laws.

In a blog post, the social media giant said that it made the decision after being unable to find a “solution” in discussions with the Australian government.

“The proposed law fundamentally misunderstands the relationship between our platform and publishers who use it to share news content”, Facebook said.Credit:AP

“The proposed law fundamentally misunderstands the relationship between our platform and publishers who use it to share news content,” said William Easton, Facebook’s Australia and New Zealand managing director.

“It has left us facing a stark choice: attempt to comply with a law that ignores the realities of this relationship, or stop allowing news content on our services in Australia. With a heavy heart, we are choosing the latter.

“Unfortunately, this means people and news organisations in Australia are now restricted from posting news links and sharing or viewing Australian and international news content on Facebook.”

More to come

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Content Moderation Case Study: Valve Takes A Hands Off Approach To Porn Via Steam (2018)


from the know-it-when-we-see-it dept

Summary: Different platforms have different rules regarding “adult” content, but they often prove difficult to enforce. Even the US judicial system has declared that there is no easy way to define pornography, leading to Justice Potter Stewart’s famous line, “I know it when I see it.”

Many, if not most, internet websites have rules regarding such adult content, and in 2017 Valve’s online game platform, Steam, started trying to get more serious about enforcing its rules, leading to some smaller independent games being banned from the platform. Over the next few months more and more games were removed, though some started pointing out that this policy and the removals were doing the most harm to independent game developers.

In June of 2018, Valve announced that it had listened to various discussions on this and decided that it was going to take a very hands off approach to moderating content, including adult content. After admitting that there are widespread debates over this, the company said that it would basically allow absolutely anything on the platform, with very, very few exceptions:

So we ended up going back to one of the principles in the forefront of our minds when we started Steam, and more recently as we worked on Steam Direct to open up the Store to many more developers: Valve shouldn’t be the ones deciding this. If you’re a player, we shouldn’t be choosing for you what content you can or can’t buy. If you’re a developer, we shouldn’t be choosing what content you’re allowed to create. Those choices should be yours to make. Our role should be to provide systems and tools to support your efforts to make these choices for yourself, and to help you do it in a way that makes you feel comfortable.

With that principle in mind, we’ve decided that the right approach is to allow everything onto the Steam Store, except for things that we decide are illegal, or straight up trolling. Taking this approach allows us to focus less on trying to police what should be on Steam, and more on building those tools to give people control over what kinds of content they see. We already have some tools, but they’re too hidden and not nearly comprehensive enough. We are going to enable you to override our recommendation algorithms and hide games containing the topics you’re not interested in. So if you don’t want to see anime games on your Store, you’ll be able to make that choice. If you want more options to control exactly what kinds of games your kids see when they browse the Store, you’ll be able to do that. And it’s not just players that need better tools either – developers who build controversial content shouldn’t have to deal with harassment because their game exists, and we’ll be building tools and options to support them too.

The company admitted that it would likely struggle with this plan, especially given different laws around the globe, but that it wanted to put the onus on end users, rather than itself.

Decisions to be made by Valve:

  • Is it really possible to allow anything that isn’t “illegal or straight up trolling”?
  • How do you define “straight up trolling”?
  • How do you make sure that parts of the Steam store are safe for younger users?
  • What tools need to be provided to users to set their own filters?

Questions and policy implications to consider:

  • With more and more pressure from governments to clean up the internet, will taking a “hands off approach” lead to even more regulatory threats?
  • Does taking such a hands off approach create greater legal liability?
  • Can a hands off approach make users feel that the company is putting all of the responsibility on them, rather than itself?

Resolution: In the following few months, Valve released more ways to filter content in its store, including an adult filter. It also began approving more explicit games, as suggested by the policy.

At around the same time, it did continue to remove games, supposedly for violating its new “no trolling” policy. The company admitted that the no trolling policy is intentionally vague.

It is vague and we’ll tell you why. You’re a denizen of the internet so you know that trolls come in all forms. On Steam, some are simply trying to rile people up with something we call “a game shaped object” (ie: a crudely made piece of software that technically and just barely passes our bar as a functioning video game but isn’t what 99.9% of folks would say is “good”). Some trolls are trying to scam folks out of their Steam inventory items, others are looking for a way to generate a small amount of money off Steam through a series of schemes that revolve around how we let developers use Steam keys. Others are just trying to incite and sow discord. Trolls are figuring out new ways to be loathsome as we write this. But the thing these folks have in common is that they aren’t actually interested in good faith efforts to make and sell games to you or anyone. When a developer’s motives aren’t that, they’re probably a troll.

Our review of something that may be “a troll game” is a deep assessment that actually begins with the developer. We investigate who this developer is, what they’ve done in the past, their behavior on Steam as a developer, as a customer, their banking information, developers they associate with, and more. All of this is done to answer the question “who are we partnering with and why do they want to sell this game?” We get as much context around the creation and creator of the game and then make an assessment. A trend we’re seeing is that we often ban these people from Steam altogether instead of cherry-picking through their individual game submissions. In the words of someone here in the office: “it really does seem like bad games are made by bad people.”

This doesn’t mean there aren’t some crude or lower quality games on Steam, but it does mean we believe the developers behind them aren’t out to do anything more than sell a game they hope some folks will want to play.

The company has still faced some criticism over these policies. In 2019 an anti-pornography group complained publicly that it was too easy to find adult content on Steam despite the new filters that were put in place, saying that the filters were “mere speedbumps.”

In late 2020, Steam started to experiment with a revamp of how it organizes content, and that may include an explicit games area.

Originally published to the Trust & Safety Foundation website.

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Google opens paid-for Australian platform in drive to undercut Government’s proposed content payment laws


Google has launched a platform in Australia offering news it has paid for after striking its own content deals with publishers.

It’s part of a drive to show that world-first legislation proposed by the Federal Government to enforce payments is unnecessary.

Only rolled out previously in Brazil and Germany, the News Showcase platform was originally slated for launch last June.

But Alphabet-owned Google delayed plans when the Government moved to make it a legal requirement for Google and Facebook to pay Australian media companies for content.

The tech giant, still lobbying the Australian Government in private meetings, has previously said was the legislation was “unworkable” and would force it to pull out of the country altogether if implemented.

With the legislation now before a parliamentary inquiry, the launch of News Showcase in Australia will see it pay seven domestic outlets, including the Canberra Times, to use their content.

Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume.

Play Video. Duration: 1 minute 47 seconds

The Federal Government says it won’t back down on media ownership reform.

Financial details of the content deals weren’t disclosed, and Canberra Times publisher, Australian Community Media, did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Google said it looked forward to striking agreements with more Australian publishers, whose position has been bolstered by Canberra’s aggressive push back against Facebook and Google.

“This provides an alternative to the model put forward by the Australian Government,” said Derek Wilding, a professor at the University of Technology Sydney’s Centre for Media Transition.

Last month Reuters said it had signed a deal with Google to be the first global news provider to Google News Showcase. Reuters is owned by news and information provider Thomson Reuters Corp.

Google declined to add a further comment when contacted by Reuters.

Last month, Google and a French publishers’ lobby agreed to a copyright framework for the tech firm to pay news publishers for content online, in a first for Europe.

Under the proposed legislation in Australia, Google and Facebook would have to pay publishers and broadcasters for content included in search results or news feeds as well.

If they failed to strike a deal with publishers, a government-appointed arbitrator would decide the price.

While Google’s public stance on potentially leaving the country remains firm, Australia’s Treasurer Josh Frydenberg said Google’s approach had been “constructive” in recent days during private meetings.

“The Prime Minister [Scott Morrison] and myself and [Communications Minister] Paul Fletcher had a very constructive discussion with the head of Google just yesterday,” Mr Frydenberg said.

“In that discussion … they re-committed to Australia, we re-committed [to the legislation].”

Reuters/ABC

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